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DNP-Project Discussion Questions

DNP-Project Discussion Questions

DNP-Project Discussion Questions

The following questions answered in about 150 words each

DQ-1

Review “Criticism and Judgment: A Critical Look at Scientific Peer Review,” located in topic materials.

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Discuss the importance of incorporating feedback from a peer review process and dealing with the experience of uncertainty it may create for both the author and the reviewer. You may share whatever information from your peer review that you are comfortable sharing.

Why is peer review so important and how can we use peer review or the professional critique offered to us to improve our scholarly position?

RESOURCES

Hope, A. A., & Munro, C. L. (2019). Criticism and judgment: A critical look at scientific peer review. American Journal of Critical Care28(4), 242–245.

URL:https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=137294238&site=ehost-live&scope=site

DQ-2

View “Privacy & Health Research in a Data-Driven World” located in topic materials.

After viewing the video, discuss how you plan to protect your patient’s privacy within your project.

RESOURCES

View “Privacy & Health Research in a Data-Driven World,” located on the NIH Videocasting website.

URL:https://videocast.nih.gov/summary.asp?Live=33360&start=182&duration=8224&bhcp=1

DQ-3

Review “Why Causal Inference Matters to Nurses: The Case of Nurse Staffing and Patient Outcomes,” located in topic materials.

How would you define and imply causal inference relative to your quasi-experimental designed project and separate it from bias and other factors that may influence it?

RESOURCES

Costa, D. K., & Yakusheva, O. (2016). Why causal inference matters to nurses: The case of nurse staffing and patient outcomes. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing21(2), 1. doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol21No02Man02

URL:https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=hch&AN=116288407&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=s8333196&groupid=main&profile=eds1

DQ-4

Review “Information Bias in Health Research: Definition, Pitfalls, and Adjustment Methods,” located in topic materials.

Using your project proposal, provide an example of each of the types of errors described in the article.

RESOURCES

Althubaiti, A. (2016). Information bias in health research: Definition, pitfalls, and adjustment methods. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare2016(1), 211–217. https://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S104807

URL:https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsdoj&AN=edsdoj.b1da50f685f4486d809494257f7e7181&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=s8333196&groupid=main&profile=eds1

DQ-5

Examine your process of data collection and how you will maintain patient privacy during your intervention. How can the Christian worldview of carrying out work within the public arena with compassion, justice, and concern for the common good affect data collection and patient privacy?

DQ-6

Review “Lies, Damned Lies and Statistics: Clinical Importance Versus Statistical Significance in Research,” located in topic materials.

Provide examples of how you addressed feasibility and statistical versus clinical significance in your proposal. For example, why did you select a four-week time frame for your project versus a power analysis? Did you select this because it was feasible? Why or why not and explain.

What is the difference between clinical and statistical significance and why are both important to the patient improvement outcomes of your project?

RESOURCES

Mellis, C. (2018). Lies, damned lies and statistics: Clinical importance versus statistical significance in research. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews25, 88–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prrv.2017.02.002

URL:https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edselp&AN=S1526054217300088&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=s8333196&groupid=main&profile=eds1

DQ-8

Review “How to Make APA Format Tables and Figures Using Microsoft Word,” located in topic materials. Create a table of your proposed analysis including descriptive data in a Word document. Upload it to the discussion forum.

RESOURCES

ATTACHED

  • attachment

    DNP-960-RS-MODULE-8-MakingAPAFormatTablesandFiguresUsingMicrosoftWord.docx

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    How to Make APA Format Tables and Figures Using Microsoft Word

     

    I. Tables versus Figures

    Tables and figures are used to display critical information, which may be challenging to share in the text. Tables use words and numbers displayed where the arrangement of the data does not visually display a spatial arrangement. Figures, on the other hand, communicate numerical information using spatial relations for comparison. For specific information about tables and figures according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2020). DNP-Project Discussion Questions

     

    II. Examples of APA Tables

     

    A. Descriptive Table

     

    Table 1

     

    Characteristics of Variables

    Variable Variable Type Level of Measurement
    Group, intervention, or tool Independent Nominal

     

    Rates or events Dependent Nominal

     

    Socioeconomic status or categories in an order Dependent Ordinal

     

    Time, temperature Dependent Interval

     

    Age, height, scores of tests Dependent Ratio

    Note: Add notes here = (Provide any reference, 2019).

     

    Table 1

     

    Number of Handoffs Per Groups

    Group Number of Handoffs (%)
    Pre-Intervention Group (Baseline) 150 (50%)
     

    SBAR Group

     

    150 (50%)

       

    Note. SBAR handoff was defined as …. (Reference, 2020)

    Table 1

    Age, Gender Level of Education, and Experience

        n %
    Gender Male 4 13.3
      Female 26 86.7
    Age 24-30 15 50.0
      31-40 7 23.3
      41-50 4 13.3
      51-60 2 6.6
      61-70 2 6.6
    Level of Education Diploma 2 6.6
      Associates in Nursing 2 6.6
      Bachelor of Science in Nursing 24 80.0
      Master of Science in Nursing 2 6.6
    Oncology Nursing Certification Nurses with certification 4 13.3
      Nurses without certification 26 86.7
    Years of Experience in Nursing      
    Nursing 0-5 years 10 33.3
      6-10 years 5 16.7
      11-20 years 10 33.3
      21-30 years 5 16.7
    Charge Nurse 0-5 years 5 16.7
      6-10 years 10 33.3
      11-20 years 10 33.3
      21-30 years 5 16.7
    Working on Unit 0-5 years 10 33.3
      6-10 years 10 33.3
      11-20 years 5 16.7
      21-30 years 5 16.7

     

    Table 1

    Number of Hours Per Week Spent in Various Activities

    Group Baseline

    (n = 30)

    Post Intervention

    (n = 30)

    Total Sample

    (n = 60)

      M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)
    Schoolwork 18.23 (7.79) 16.23 (3.99) 17.63 (1.2)
    Physical activities 19.54 (3.63) 14.23 (2.84)* 18.67 (1.0)
    Socializing 16.23 (3.99) 17.63 (1.2) 18.23 (7.79)
    Watching television 14.23 (2.84) 18.67 (1.0) 19.54 (3.63)
    Extracurricular activities 19.54 (3.63) 18.23 (7.79) 19.22 (5.45)

    Note. Schoolwork was defined as time spent doing classwork outside of regular class time. *statistically significant at p <.05

     

    B. Chi-Square Example (Group IV x Group DV)

     

    Table 1

    Cross-tabulation of Groups and Misses and Non-Misses

     

     

    Group

     

    Communication Misses/Non-Misses

     
      No Misses Misses U p
     

    Baseline

           
    Intervention        

    Note. **= p < .01. Adjusted standardized residuals appear in parentheses below group frequencies.

     

    Table 1

    Cross-tabulation of Gender and Chronic Pain

    Chronic

    Pain

    Gender    
      Female Male χ2 Φ
     

    Yes

    3

    (-2.5)

    8

    (2.5)

     

     

    4.10**

     

     

    .50

     

    No

    8

    (2.5)

    4

    (-2.5)

       

    Note. **= p < .01. Adjusted standardized residuals appear in parentheses below group frequencies.

     

    C. t-Test Example (Dichotomous Group IV x Score DV)

    Notice two separate t-test results have been reported, which can be compared by the reader.

     

    Table 1

     

    Chronic Pain Score and Exercise Time for Males and Females

      Gender    
      Female Male t Df
     

    Pain Score

     

    3.33

    (1.70)

     

    3.75

    (1.79)

    -2.20* 175
     

    Exercise Time

     

    4.28

    (.7509)

     

    3.87

    (.9280)

    4.2** 176

    Note. * = < .05, *** = < .001. Standard deviations appear in parentheses below means.

     

    Table 1

     

    Enter a descriptive title.

      Outcome    
      Before Score After Score t Df
     

    Baseline

     

    Mean

    (SD)

     

    Mean

    (SD)

    Value for t* Degrees of freedom value
     

    Intervention

     

    Mean

    (SD)

     

    Mean

    (SD)

    Value for t* Degrees of freedom value

    Note. * = < .05, *** = < .001. Standard deviations appear in parentheses below means.

     

     

    D. One Way ANOVA with 3 Groups Example (Group IV x Score DV)

    Within an analysis of variance (ANOVA), an analysis of the effects of comparisons is reported using the F and n2. Notice in the table below, four different analyses or comparisons are displayed. However, if a significant difference is noted, the analysis should go further and provide the comparisons which are made post hoc for any significant analyses. The F value is marked as significant or not with asterisks (***). The power of this table is the ability to examine four different analyses at the same time. DNP-Project Discussion Questions

     

     

    Table 1

     

    Analysis of Variance for Sleep Times and Experimental Groups

     

      Experimental Group    
      Aerobic Exercise Weight Lifting No Exercise F η2
    Total Sleep Time 8.23a

    (.55)

    6.93b

    (.90)

    7.73ab

    (.55)

     

    4.78***

     

    .18
    Total Wake Time 3.56a

    (.70)

    3.62a

    (.55)

    3.24a

    (.90)

    .07 .00
    Total Light Sleep 3.29c

    (.73)

    2.89

    (.72)

    3.02b

    (.49)

    1.95* .06
    Total Deep Sleep 3.21b

    (.19)

    3.10a

    (.28)

    3.30a

    (.19)

    .20 .01

    Note. * = < .05, *** = < .001. Standard deviations appear in parentheses below means. Means with differing subscripts within rows are significantly different at the p < .05 based on Fisher’s LSD post hoc paired comparisons.

    Any comparison found to be significant should be further evaluated using a post hoc analysis to determine the factor associated with the significance, e.g., aerobic exercise, weightlifting, or no exercise.

     

    E. Factorial ANOVA Example 2 x 3 Between-Subjects Design

    Two tables are used within a factorial ANOVA. First, the overall results for the main effects are provided for the two independent variables. Then the interaction effect for the two independent variables is provided. The simple effects are used to show any interactions which may be present. DNP-Project Discussion Questions

    Table 1

    Experimental Group x Sex Factorial Analysis of Variance for Sleep Scores

     

    Source Df F η2 p
    Experimental Group 2 7.93 .17 .001**
    Sex 1

     

    31.41

     

    .34

     

    .001**

     

    Group x Sex (interaction)

     

    2

     

    7.85

     

    .17

     

    .002 **

     

    Error (within groups) 30      

    ** = < .01.

     

     

    Table 5

     

    Analysis of Sleep Scores for Experimental Groups by Gender

     

      Aerobic Exercise Weight Lifting No Exercise Simple Effects:

    F df (2, 30)

     

    Males

    10.37a

    (2.50)

    10.30a

    (2.34)

    10.33a

    (1.63)

    .04
     

    Females

    4.83a

    (1.60)

    10.50b

    (2.59)

    4.50a

    (1.52)

    15.74**
     

    Simple Effects:

    F df (1, 30)

     

    23.56**

     

     

    .00

     

    23.56**  

    Note. ** = < .01. Standard deviations appear in parentheses bellow means. Means with differing subscripts within rows are significantly different at the p < .05 based on Fisher’s LSD post hoc paired comparisons.

     

     

     

    F. Correlations (Scores IV x Scores IV)

     

    Table 1

     

    Pearson’s Product Moment Correlations for Chronic Pain Score, Exercise Attitude Scores,

    and Physical Activity

     

      Demographic Influences on Exercise
       
      Weight Age
    Chronic Pain Score

     

    Pain Level

     

    .39***

     

     

    -.07

     

    Pain Intensity

     

    .15

     

    .22*

     

    Physical Exercise

     

    Type of Exercise

     

     

    -.26**

     

     

    -.19†

     

    Time of Exercise

     

    -.13

     

     

    -.21*

     

    Intent to Exercise .02 -.10

    Note. † = < .10, *= < .05, **= < .01, ***= < .001. N = 96 for all analyses.

     

     

    III. Examples of APA Figures

    Figures are used to show spatial relationships so that comparisons between variables or factors can be visually demonstrated. Figures should be easy to read, relevant, and identify the features being compared using labels, titles, and colors to present the data. The figure should be kept on one page and supplement the text. The caption should provide enough detail that the figure can be understood without having to refer to the text. DNP-Project Discussion Questions

     

     

     

    Figure 1 Graph of Scores Before and After

    Note: Reprinted from S. GCU. Alternatively, adapted from or www.website.com and reprinted with permission.

     

     

    Additional Examples:

    Table 1

     

    Chronic Pain Score and Exercise Time for Males and Females

     

      Gender    
      Female Male t Df
     

    Pain Score

     

    3.33

    (1.70)

     

    3.75

    (1.79)

    -2.20* 175
     

    Exercise Time

     

    4.28

    (.7509)

     

    3.87

    (.9280)

    4.2** 176

     

    Note. * = < .05, *** = < .001. Standard deviations appear in parentheses below means.

     

     

    Table 1

     

    Table Title Should be Capitalized and Italicized, if Longer Than One-line, Single Space the Title so That it Runs Like This.

    ______________________________________________________________________________

    Variable Variable

    Category Group Group Group Group

    Table Spanner

    1 # # # #

    2 # # # #

    3 # # # #

    ___________________________________________________________________________

    Table Spanner

    1 # # # #

    2 # # # #

    3 # # # #

    ___________________________________________________________________________

    Total # # # #

     

    Table 1

     

    Means and Standard Deviations in the Measure

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    Enter the Measure or Variable Score

     

    Category n M SD

    1 # # #
    2 # # #
    3 # # #
    4 # # #
    5 # # #

     

    Note: Enter notes

    *Enter specific notes

     

    Table 1

     

    Participant Characteristics

    __________________________________________________________________________

    Group One Other Group

    Measure M SD M SD F (DF) p __

    1 # # # # #(#,#) #
    2 # # # # #(#,#) #
    3 # # # # #(#,#) #
    4 # # # # #(#,#) #

     

     

    Table 1

     

    Independent Sample t-test

    ____________________________________________________________________________________

      Group One Group Two
    Source M SD M SD t (df) p***
    Variable 1 # # # # # (#) #

    ____________________________________________________________________________________

    Note: M = Mean, SD = Standard Deviation.

    ***P<0.001. N=#

     

     

    Table 1

    Chi-Square Results

    Group

    Before After χ2** φ

    Yes #

    (##)

    #

    (##)

     

    # #
    No #

    (##)

    #

    (##)

       
             

    Note. **= p < .01. Adjusted standardized residuals appear in parentheses low group frequencies.

     

    Table 1

     

    One-Way Analysis of Variance of the Results

     

    Source df SS MS F p
    Between groups 2 18.14 9.07 4.09 .02
    Within groups 70 155.23 2.22    
    Total 72 173.37      

     

    ____________________________________________________________________________________

     

    References

    American Psychological Association (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological

    Association. (7th ed.). Washington, DC; Author

    Microsoft Word ®. (2019). Retrieved from https://products.office.com/

    Before 38 36 43 35 37 37 39 36.027027027027025 35.054054054054056 39 42.05263157894737 36 37 36 37 36 36.027027027027025 36 36 37 37 After 25 24 23 22 27 30 27 33 29 37 30 22 23 29 33 34 30 29 31 35 32

     

     

     

     

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