Graphic Organizer 7-1 Assignment
Graphic Organizer 7-1 Assignment
To complete this assignment, first select a point and counterpoint issue of interest to examine. I have chosen the topic Vaccinating Children. The article is attached.
Then, complete and submit the graphic organizer based on the issue that you chose. View the Theme 4 Graphic Organizer Exemplar on the hybrid and electric cars debate and the climate change debate as a model of how to approach this activity.
SCS 100 Theme 4: Graphic Organizer Exemplar
View this graphic organizer exemplar on the hybrid and electric cars debate as a model of how to approach this activity.
Supporters of [insert the selected issue here]
What group(s) in American society does the perspective appeal
What organizations promote the perspective?
What are the biases in the perspective?
Does the perspective appeal to you? Why or
What objective evidence is used to
support the perspective?
Electric vehicles People concerned about climate change/global warming, pollution, and natural resource exploitation (oil and gas). These people are usually of a younger demographic (under 40 years of age).
Organizations such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promote the use of electric cars in order to reduce emissions, pollution, and the extraction and use of natural resources for nonelectric vehicles. The makers of electric vehicles would also likely promote the use and sale of these vehicles.
Biases of this perspective would include the assumption that gas-powered vehicles are the sole cause of environmental pollution and that electric vehicles would easily solve or reverse global warming/climate change.
Electric vehicles are most appealing to me because I would personally enjoy using renewable power rather than relying on a non- renewable resource such as gas or oil.
Empirical evidence from the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded human- induced climate change is happening and the effects are already evident. Graphic Organizer 7-1 Assignment
Maintaining gas-fueled cars as primary means of transportation
Car enthusiasts would likely support maintaining gas-fueled cars because very few high-performance cars are electric; most are fueled by gas.
Automotive lobbyists, car manufacturers, and oil producers would promote maintaining gas-fueled cars.
Automotive lobbyists, car manufacturers, and oil producers profit a great deal from the creation and sale of gas- fueled cars as well as the gas that is sold to fuel them.
I have owned a gas- fueled car my whole life and it is expensive to purchase gas for it, so this approach appeals least to me.
A study by Christopher W. Tessum and colleagues (2014) reported a battery- powered car recharged with electricity generated by coal-fired power stations is likely to cause more than three times as many deaths from pollution as a conventional, petrol-driven vehicle.http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display-query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=true&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_within_results=&p=OVIC&action=e&catId=GALE%7CQBGHFY204428841&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CPC3010999316&source=Bookmark&u=nhc_main&jsid=9657ac52b2df43721744479cd05b44a5
SCS 100 Theme 4: Graphic Organizer Template
6/20/2018 Vaccines ProCon.org
UNDERSTAND THE ISSUES. UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER.
Vaccines can save children’s lives. The American Academy of Pediatrics states that “most childhood vaccines are 90%-99% effective in preventing disease.”  According to Shot@Life, a United Nations Foundation partner organization, vaccines save 2.5 million children from preventable diseases every year , which equates to roughly 285 children saved every hour. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimated that 732,000 American children were saved from death and 322 million cases of childhood illnesses were prevented between 1994 and 2014 due to vaccination.  The measles vaccine has decreased childhood deaths from measles by 74%. . Graphic Organizer 7-1 Assignment
Vaccines can cause serious and sometimes fatal side effects. According to the CDC, all vaccines carry a risk of a life- threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) in about one per million children.  The rotavirus vaccination can cause intussusception, a type of bowel blockage that may require hospitalization, in about one per 20,000 babies in the United States.  Long-term seizures, coma, lowered consciousness, and permanent brain damage may be associated with the DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis) and MMR vaccines, though the CDC notes the rarity of the reaction makes it di�cult to determine causation.  The CDC reports that pneumonia can be caused by the chickenpox vaccine, and a “small possibility” exists that the �u vaccine could be associated with
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends getting 29 doses of 9 vaccines (plus a yearly �u shot after six months old) for kids aged 0 to six. No US federal laws mandate vaccination, but all 50 states require certain vaccinations for children entering public schools. Most states offer medical and religious exemptions; and some states allow philosophical exemptions.
Proponents say that vaccination is safe and one of the greatest health developments of the 20th century. They point out that illnesses, including rubella, diphtheria, smallpox, polio, and whooping cough, are now prevented by vaccination and millions of children’s lives are saved. They contend adverse reactions to vaccines are extremely rare. Graphic Organizer 7-1 Assignment
Opponents say that children’s immune systems can deal with most infections naturally, and that injecting questionable vaccine ingredients into a child may cause side effects, including seizures, paralysis, and death. They contend that numerous studies prove that vaccines may trigger problems like autism, ADHD, and diabetes. Read more background…
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Should Any Vaccines Be Required for Children?
6/20/2018 Vaccines ProCon.org
The ingredients in vaccines are safe in the amounts used. Ingredients, such as thimerosal, formaldehyde, and aluminum, can be harmful in large doses but they are not used in harmful quantities in vaccines. Children are exposed to more aluminum in breast milk and infant formula than they are exposed to in vaccines.  Paul O�t, MD, notes that children are exposed to more bacteria, viruses, toxins, and other harmful substances in one day of normal activity than are in vaccines.  With the exception of inactivated �u vaccines, thimerosal (a mercury compound) has been removed or reduced to trace amounts in vaccines for children under 6 years old.  The FDA requires up to 10 or more years of testing for all vaccines before they are licensed, and then they are monitored by the CDC and the FDA to make sure the vaccines and the ingredients used in the vaccines are safe. . Graphic Organizer 7-1 Assignment
Major medical organizations state that vaccines are safe. These organizations include: CDC, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Institute of Medicine (IOM), American Medical Association (AMA), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), UNICEF, US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Agency of Canada, Canadian Paediatric Society, National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID), and American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP).   The WHO states, “Vaccines are very safe.”  The US Department of Health and Human Services states, “Vaccines are some of the safest medical products available.” 
Adverse reactions to vaccines are extremely rare. The most common side effect of vaccines, anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), occurs in one per several hundred thousand to one per million vaccinations.  According to Sanjay Gupta, Chief Medical Correspondent for CNN and practicing neurosurgeon, “you are 100 times more likely to be struck by lightning than to have a serious allergic reaction to the vaccine that protects you against measles.”  Ellen Clayton, MD, JD, Professor of Pediatrics and Law at Vanderbilt Law School and co-author of the 2011 IOM report “Committee to Review Adverse Effects of Vaccines,” summarized the results of the report: “The MMR vaccine does not cause autism… The MMR and DTaP do not cause Type 1 diabetes. And the killed �u vaccine does not cause Bell’s palsy, and it does not trigger episodes of asthma.”  Combination vaccines, like MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella), have been used without adverse effects since the mid- 1940s.
Vaccines protect the “herd.” Herd immunity (or community immunity) means that when a “critical portion” (the percent of people who need to be vaccinated to provide herd immunity) of a population. Graphic Organizer 7-1 Assignment
Guillain-Barré Syndrome, a disorder in which the person’s immune system attacks parts of the peripheral nervous system, in about one or two per million people vaccinated. . The National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC) says that vaccines may be linked to learning disabilities, asthma, autism, diabetes, chronic in�ammation, and other disabilities. 
Vaccines contain harmful ingredients. Some physicians believe thimerosal, an organic mercury compound found in trace amounts in one �u vaccine for children and other vaccines for adults, is linked to autism.  Aluminum is used in some vaccines and excess aluminum in human bodies can cause neurological harm.  Formaldehyde, also found in some vaccines, is a carcinogen, and, according to VaxTruth.org, exposure can cause side effects such as cardiac impairment, central nervous system depression, “changes in higher cognitive functions,” coma, convulsions, and death.  Glutaraldehyde, a compound used to disinfect medical and dental equipment, is used in some DTaP vaccinations and exposure can cause asthma and other respiratory issues.  Some �u vaccines contain cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMB), a compound used as an antiseptic, which can be a skin, eye, and respiratory irritant. Some polio, TD, and DTaP vaccines contain 2-phenoxyethanol, an antibacterial that is a skin and eye irritant that can cause headache, shock, convulsions, kidney damage, cardiac and kidney failure, and death.  Some vaccines for the �u contain chicken egg protein, which can be harmful to children who are allergic to eggs.  Some vaccines for PCV, HPV, DTaP, Hep A, Hep B, and Hib contain yeast proteins which, according to VaxTruth and Joseph Mercola, MD, an alternative medicine proponent, contain MSG that can cause migraines, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), asthma, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Lou Gehrig’s disease, ADD, seizure, and stroke. 
The government should not intervene in personal medical choices. Medical decisions for children should be left to the parents or caregivers. Barbara Low Fisher, Co-founder of National Vaccine Information Center, stated, “If the State can tag, track down and force citizens against their will to be injected with biological products of known and unknown toxicity today, there will be no limit on which individual freedoms the State can take away in the name of the greater good tomorrow.”  Ron Paul, MD, former US Representative (R-TX), in an Oct. 19, 2011 article, “Government Vaccines – Bad Policy, Bad Medicine,” stated, “intimately personal medical decisions should not be made by government… Freedom over one’s physical person is the most basic freedom of all, and people in a free society should be sovereign over their own bodies. When we give government the power to make medical decisions for us, we in essence accept that the state owns our bodies.” . Graphic Organizer 7-1 Assignment
Mandatory vaccines infringe upon constitutionally protected religious freedoms. Several religions oppose
6/20/2018 Vaccines ProCon.org
is vaccinated against a contagious disease it is unlikely that an outbreak of the disease will occur so most members of the community will be protected.  Children and adults who cannot be vaccinated due to age, poor health (who are immune-compromised or undergoing chemotherapy, for example), or other reasons rely on herd immunity to prevent contraction of vaccine-preventable diseases.  A Jan. 2008 outbreak of measles in San Diego, CA resulted in 48 children who had to be quarantined because they were too young to be vaccinated and could not rely on herd immunity to keep them safe.  In 2011, 49 US states did not meet the 92-94% herd immunity threshold for pertussis (whooping cough), resulting in a 2012 outbreak that sickened 42,000 people and was the biggest outbreak since 1955.  In 2005, an 18-month-old Amish girl contracted polio and spread the disease to four other unvaccinated children, but, because the community met the herd immunity threshold for the disease, there was no polio outbreak. 
Vaccines save children and their parents time and money. Vaccines cost less in time and money to obtain than infectious diseases cost in time off of work to care for a sick child, potential long-term disability care, and medical costs.  For example, children under �ve with the �u are contagious for about eight days, and, according to a 2012 CDC study, cost their parents an average of 11 to 73 hours of wages (about $222 to $1,456) and $300 to $4,000 in medical expenses.  Children with rotavirus are contagious for up to 30 days.  A Jan. 2008 outbreak of measles in San Diego, CA resulted in 11 unvaccinated children catching measles and a resulting net public-sector cost of $10,376 per case (or, $123,512 total) due to emergency vaccination and outbreak response.  Furthermore, under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA, or Obamacare) many vaccines are available to children and adults without copay. . Graphic Organizer 7-1 Assignment
Vaccines protect future generations. Vaccinated mothers protect their unborn children from viruses that could potentially cause birth defects, and vaccinated communities can help eradicate diseases for future generations. Before the rubella vaccine was licensed in 1969, a global rubella (German measles) outbreak caused the deaths of 11,000 babies, and birth defects in 20,000 babies between 1963 and 1965 in the United States.  Women who were vaccinated as children against rubella have greatly decreased the chance of passing the virus to their unborn or newborn children, eliminating the birth defects, such as heart problems, hearing and vision loss, congenital cataracts, liver and spleen damage, and mental disabilities, associated with the disease. 
Vaccines eradicated smallpox and have nearly eradicated other diseases such as polio. Children are no longer vaccinated against smallpox because the disease no longer exists due to vaccination.  The last case of smallpox in the United States was in
vaccines and mandatory vaccinations. The First Amendment of the US Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.”  In the ruling for Cantwell v. Connecticut (1939; 9-0), the US Supreme Court held that state and local governments’ infringement upon religious freedom is also unconstitutional.  Some Christian Scientists consider vaccinations against their religion because founder Mary Baker Eddy stated that the “calm, Christian state of mind is a better preventative of contagion than a drug, or than any other possible sanative method… the ‘perfect Love’ that ‘casteth out fear’ is a sure defense.”  Amish communities do not view all vaccinations as “necessary” and some believe that vaccinations weaken the immune system.  The Church of Illumination states that “the teachings of the Church unequivocally a�rm that injections of vaccines and inoculations are a violation of these biblical teachings… Immunizations and vaccinations are a form of blood pollution because they have devastating effects on the regeneration of the soul that each Church member seeks to attain.”  The Universal Family Church believes that parents should decide whether their children should be vaccinated and that “God intends the health decisions of individuals should… be honored by all authorities.” . Graphic Organizer 7-1 Assignment
Vaccines can contain ingredients some people consider immoral or otherwise objectionable. Some DTaP/IPV/Hib combination, Hep A/Hep B combination, HepA, MMR, and chicken pox vaccines are cultivated in cells from two fetuses aborted in the 1960s (listed as MRC-5 and WI-38 on package inserts). The Catholic Church, in a June 9, 2005 report about using vaccines made using cells from aborted fetuses, indicated that “there is a grave responsibility to use alternative vaccines” to avoid the “evil” of actively or passively participating in anything that involves voluntary abortion.  Some vaccines for DTaP, Hep A, RV, Hib, HPV, IPV, �u, MMR, and chicken pox are made using animal products like chicken eggs, bovine casein, insect cells, Cocker Spaniel cells, pig gelatin, and cells from African Green monkeys, making those vaccines con�ict with some vegetarian and vegan philosophies. Others consider it problematic that some vaccines are produced using human albumin, a blood plasma protein.
Vaccines are unnatural, and natural immunity is more effective than vaccination. Even pro-vaccine organizations state that natural vaccination causes better immunity. The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia notes that “It is true that natural infection almost always causes better immunity than vaccines. Whereas immunity from disease often follows a single natural infection, immunity from vaccines occurs only after several doses.”  Mayo Clinic states that natural infection “often provides more complete immunity than a series of vaccinations.”  Kurt Perkins, DC, a chiropractor and wellness expert, stated, “A vaccine violates all laws of natural immune defenses by taking a potential pathogen along with all the TOXIC ingredients (aluminum, formaldehyde, adjuvants, etc.) directly into your blood system. This process would never occur in building natural immunity. That last sentence is kind of an oxy- moron. Immunity is a natural thing. Vaccines are an arti�cial thing.” . Graphic Organizer 7-1 Assignment
6/20/2018 Vaccines ProCon.org
1948; the last case in the world was 1977 in Somalia.  In the twentieth century, there were 16,316 deaths from polio and 29,004 deaths from smallpox yearly in the United States; in 2012 there were no reported cases of polio or smallpox.  According to UNICEF, there were 500 cases of polio in 2014 worldwide (appearing only in three countries: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan), down from 350,000 cases in 1988, thanks to vaccination programs.  Diphtheria killed 21,053 people yearly, measles killed 530,217 people yearly, mumps killed 162,344 people yearly, rubella killed 47,745 people yearly, and Hib killed 20,000 people yearly in the twentieth century United States; by 2012 each of these diseases were decreased by 99% because of vaccinations. 
Vaccine-preventable diseases have not disappeared so vaccination is still necessary. The CDC notes that many vaccine-preventable diseases are still in the United States or “only a plane ride away.”  Although the paralytic form of polio has largely disappeared thanks to vaccination, the virus still exists in countries like Pakistan where there were 93 cases in 2013 and 71 in 2014 as of May 15.  The polio virus can be incubated by a person without symptoms for years; that person can then accidentally infect an unvaccinated child (or adult) in whom the virus can mutate into its paralytic form and spread amongst unvaccinated people.  Unvaccinated Amish missionaries who traveled to the Philippines brought measles back to Ohio in May 2014, resulting in 155 infected people as of June 5, 2014.  There were 9,149 con�rmed and 31,508 suspected cases of measles in the Philippines between Jan. 1 and May 20, 2013.  In 2004, there were 37 cases of measles in the United States; in 2014, by May 30, there were 16 measles outbreaks in the United States resulting in at least 334 cases in 18 states.  UNICEF reported that, globally, 453,000 children die from rotavirus, 476,000 die from pneumococcus (the bacterium that causes pneumonia, meningitis, and blood infections), 199,000 die from Hib (a bacterium that causes pneumonia and meningitis), 195,000 die from pertussis (whooping cough), 118,000 die from the measles, and 60,000 die from tetanus each year, all vaccine-preventable diseases. . Graphic Organizer 7-1 Assignment
Vaccines provide economic bene�ts for society. The CDC estimates that children vaccinated between 1994 and 2014 have yielded net savings of $1.38 trillion in “societal costs,” including money saved by preventing lost productivity due to disability and early death.  The United States saves about $27 per $1 invested in DTaP vaccination, and $13 per $1 spent on MMR vaccination.  UNICEF estimates that $6.2 billion could be saved in treatment costs if vaccines were more prominent in the world’s poorest countries.  According to the International Vaccines Access Center at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, $62.9 billion could be saved by providing Hib, pneumococcal, and rotavirus vaccinations to the 73 poorest countries: $1.4 billion in treatment costs, $300 million in lost caretaker wages, $6.2 billion in lifetime productivity loss due to disability, and $55 billion in lifetime productivity loss because of death. 
The pharmaceutical companies, FDA, and CDC should not be trusted to make and regulate safe vaccines. The primary goal of pharmaceutical companies is to sell drugs and make a pro�t. William Posey, Congressman (R-FL), stated in an Apr. 8, 2014 interview, “The incestuous relationship between the public health community and the vaccine makers and government o�cials should not be allowed to continue. I mean, you know, too many top CDC personnel go to work for the vaccine makers when they leave. That’s a revolving door that creates a serious con�ict of interest and perverts incentives that compromise integrity.”  Julie Gerberding, President of Merck Vaccines, was the CDC director from 2002-2009.  A vaccine for Lyme disease, LYMErix, was licensed by the FDA and marketed for almost four years before being pulled from the market after several class action lawsuits were �led due to a potential causal relationship to autoimmune arthritis.  Rotashield, a vaccine for rotavirus (RV), was pulled from the market by the manufacturer nine months after it was introduced after it was discovered that the vaccine might have contributed to higher instances of intussusception (bowel obstruction). 
Diseases that vaccines target have essentially disappeared. There is no reason to vaccinate against diseases that no longer occur in the United States. The CDC reported no cases or deaths from diphtheria between 2003 and 2011 in the United States.  Fewer than 51 cases and 10 deaths per year from tetanus were reported between 1994 and 2011.  Polio has been declared eradicated in the United States since 1979.  There have been fewer than 21 deaths yearly from rubella since 1971 and fewer than 25 deaths yearly from mumps since 1968. . Graphic Organizer 7-1 Assignment
Most diseases that vaccines target are relatively harmless in many cases, thus making vaccines unnecessary. The chickenpox is often just a rash with blisters and can be treated with acetaminophen, cool compresses, and calamine lotion.  The measles is normally a rash accompanied by a fever and runny nose and can be treated with rest and �uids.  Rubella is often just a virus with a rash and low fever and can be treated with acetaminophen.  Rotavirus can normally be treated with hydration and probiotics. 
6/20/2018 Vaccines ProCon.org
Did You Know? 1. All 50 states require vaccinations for children entering public schools even though no mandatory federal vaccination laws exist. All 50
states issue medical exemptions, 47 states (excluding California, Mississippi, and West Virginia) permit religious exemptions, and 19 states allow an exemption for philosophical reasons. 
2. Between 1989 and July 1, 2014, 3,645 compensation awards have been made by the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program
(VICP) (amounting to over $2.7 billion in awards and $113.2 million to cover legal costs) and 9,786 claims have been dismissed (amounting to $62.8 million paid to 4,925 dismissed claimants to cover legal costs). 
3. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimated that 732,000 American children were saved from death and 322 million cases of
childhood illnesses were prevented between 1994 and 2014 due to vaccination. 
4. About 30,000 cases of adverse reactions to vaccines have been reported annually to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) since 1990, with 10-15% classi�ed as serious, meaning associated with permanent disability, hospitalization, life-threatening illness, or death. 
5. In 1855 Massachusetts passed the �rst US state law mandating vaccinations for schoolchildren , followed by New York (1862),
Connecticut (1872), Indiana (1881), and Arkansas (1882). 
People who view this page may also like:
1. Vaccine Histories and Impact on 10 Diseases
2. Should All Americans Have the Right (Be Entitled) to Health Care?
3. State Vaccination Exemptions
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