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Literature Review: Childhood Obesity

Literature Review: Childhood Obesity

Literature Review: Childhood Obesity

While the implementation plan prepares students to apply their research to the problem or issue they have identified for their capstone change proposal project, the literature review enables students to map out and move into the active planning and development stages of the project. Literature Review: Childhood Obesity


A literature review analyzes how current research supports the PICOT, as well as identifies what is known and what is not known in the evidence. Students will use the information from the earlier PICOT Statement Paper and Literature Evaluation Table assignments to develop a 750-1,000 word review that includes the following sections:

  1. Title page
  2. Introduction section
  3. A comparison of research questions
  4. A comparison of sample populations
  5. A comparison of the limitations of the study
  6. A conclusion section, incorporating recommendations for further research

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. Literature Review: Childhood Obesity

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

  • attachment



    Literature Evaluation Table

    Student Name:

    Change Topic: Obese children under the age of 12 can be described as those children with a BMI index of 30 or more. My capstone project proposes an intervention that involves increasing knowledge on nutrition education involving proper diet and engaging in physical activities.

    Criteria Article 1 Article 2 Article 3 Article 4
    Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and

    Permalink or Working Link to Access Article


    Bleich, S. N., Segal, J., Wu, Y., Wilson, R., & Wang, Y.

    doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0886.

    Tester, J. M., Phan, T. T., Jared M. Tucker, J. M., Leung, C.W., Gillette, M. L., Sweeney, B. R., Kirk, S., Tindall, A., Olivo-Marston, S. E., & Eneli, I. U.

    DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-3228

    Cunningham, S. A., Kramer, M. R., & Narayan, K. V.

    DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1309753


    Arthur M. L., Scharf, J. R., DeBoer, M. D.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.12.008

    Article Title and Year Published


    Title: Systematic review of community-based childhood obesity prevention studies.

    Year: 2013

    Characteristics of Children 2 to 5 Years of Age with Severe Obesity.

    Year: 2018

    Incidence of Childhood Obesity in the United States

    Year: 2014

    Association between kindergarten and first-grade food insecurity and weight status in U.S. children.

    Year: 2018

    Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative), and Purposes/Aim of Study


    The purpose of the study was to conduct a systematic review of community based childhood obesity prevention. The purpose of the study was to investigate the characteristics of obese children between the age of 2 and 5 years. The paper aimed at identifying the prevalence of obesity in the United States at the national level. The aim of the paper was to determine if food insecurity is an independent risk factor for obesity in U.S. children
    Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative)


    Systematic Review Qualitative Qualitative Qualitative


    Intervention was exclusively in a community setting eg, home, school, primary care, child care Sample included children between 2 and 5 years.

    N=7028, from NHANES (1999–2014)

    Classification: normal weight, overweight, obesity

    7738 participants who were in kindergarten in 1998 in the United States. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort 2011
    Methods: Intervention/Instruments


    Comparative Review as recommended by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Methods Guide Survey weights were used to account for probability sampling design.

    This analysis was done in accordance with recommendations from the National Center for Health Statistics.

    Height and weight were measured seven times between 1998 and 2007.

    An obese baseline was set and the population analyzed

    Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate longitudinal associations between food security and body mass index (BMI) z-score.


    Relevant articles were searched from Medline, Embase, Psych-Info, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library.

    It was also based on medical subject headings terms and text words of key articles that we identified a priori.

    Multinomial logistic and linear regressions were conducted, with normal weight as the referent. The study used Growth Charts to calculate each child’s BMI

    CDC’s standard thresholds of the 85th percentile for overweight and 95th percentile for obesity.

    estimates of prevalence and incidence were stratified according to sex and quantile

    Regression models were formulated on race/ethnicity, household income, and parental education.
    Key Findings


    The study’s search revealed 9 relevant articles, four of which use combined diet and physical activity approaches to childhood obesity.

    It is also important to note that at least one of the articles revealed significant improvements in intermediate weight-related outcome, which can be related to the physical activity that results from the intervention.

    Findings from the results revealed that factors such as race, ethnicity, household income and level of education of parents as well as other factors such as breastfeeding will affect the weight of a child.

    The study also revealed that energy intake and Healthy Eating Index 2010 scores were not significantly different in children with Severe Obesity.

    Significant statistics obtained from the study revealed that there were no significant increases in prevalence between the ages of 11 and 14 years.

    It was also revealed that prevalence of obesity was higher among Hispanic children than among non-Hispanic white children of all ages while those from the wealthiest families had a lower prevalence of obesity.

    The incidence of obesity between the ages of 5 and 14 years was 4 times as high among children who had been overweight at the age of 5 years as among children who had a normal weight at that age.

    Findings of the study indicated that children with household food insecurity had increased obesity prevalence from kindergarten through grade 3.


    Based on the review conducted, the study identifies a research gap, noting that not much has been done to determine the impact of community-based childhood obesity prevention programs on primary or secondary weight outcomes. Literature Review: Childhood Obesity

    From the literature available, however, the article recommends the use of this intervention as a combination of events would lead to more effective ways to prevent weight gain.

    The study recommends a better understanding of behavioral and physiologic mechanisms and relationships behind the risk factors behind weight problems among children Based on the findings, the study recommends a better understanding of the ding risk over a lifetime and identifying potential ages for intervention. The study identified food-insecure children as most prone to obesity calling for interventions to focus on this area.
    Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone Project


    This article provides the research gap that would be exploited by working on the capstone. It asserts that more needs to be done to provide better interventions on weight management.

    It also pointed out that multiple settings may be more effective at preventing weight gain in children than single-component interventions located in the community only. This information is critical for purposes of coming up with better EPB through the capstone.

    This article provides a better understanding of the characteristics of obese children and classifies them into different categories. It also provides an overview of other characteristics based on social and economic aspects. The study has provided the much needed information on the prevalence of obesity in the country. This provides a rationale for the importance of having the necessary EBP that can be used as interventions to the problem, one of which will be provided by the capstone. This article also emphasized on some of the most prone characteristics of childhood obesity. It identified food-prone children as having the highest chances. The capstone project will therefore consider this when coming up with an intervention






    Criteria Article 5 Article 6 Article 7 Article 8
    Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and

    Permalink or Working Link to Access Article


    Fetter, S. D., Scherr, R. E., Linless, D. J., Dharmar, M., Sara, E. Schaefer, E. S., & Zidenberg-Cherr, S.

    DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2018.1436477

    Lydecke, J. A., Riley, K. E., & Grilo, C. M.

    DOI: 10.1002/eat.22858

    Marcum, C. S., Goldring M. R., McBride, C. M., & Persky, S.

    DOI: 10.1093/abm/kax041

    Vollmer, R. L.



    Article Title and Year Published


    Effect of the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a Multicomponent, School-Based Nutrition Intervention, on Physical Activity Intensity.

    Year published: 2018

    Associations of parents’ self, child, and other “fat talk” with child eating behaviors and weight.

    Year published: 2018

    Modeling Dynamic Food Choice Processes to Understand Dietary Intervention Effects.

    Year published: 2018

    An Exploration of How Fathers Attempt to Prevent Childhood Obesity in Their Families.

    Year published: 2018

    Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative), and Purposes/Aim of Study


    The main aim of the study was to determine whether physical activity patterns improved School-Based Nutrition intervention. The study aimed at identifying the relationship between parenting and eating behaviour and how they all relate wo weight gain. The article aimed at identifying limitations in dietary behaviour and how micro-level choices undertaken by people on a daily basis affect it as an intervention to obesity. The objective of the article was to understand how fathers, a parent, understand overweight preschoolers
    Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative)


    Qualitative Qualitative Qualitative Qualitative


    Youth enrolled in a Shaping Healthy Choices Program 581 Parents of preadolescents or adolescents 221 mothers 117 US fathers with an average of 35 years, 85% white
    Methods: Intervention/Instruments


    Pre and post-intervention assessments were conducted alongside a control experiment

    Youth at the control and intervention schools wore a Polar Active monitor on their non-dominant wrist 24 h/d for at least 2 consecutive days.

    Parents were interviewed and asked if they talk about weight gain (fat talk) with their children (pre-adolescents and adolescents. The study modelled the choices of the 221 mothers who had adopted an information-based intervention for their children. Online survey with nine questions.




    Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate change in physical activity


    Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.


    Fat-Talk was categorized into self‐fat talk, obesity‐fat talk and child-fat-talk. All these were analyzed based on the responses given by each parent Relational event modeling, where participants were grouped into control information, childhood obesity risk information and childhood obesity risk information plus a personalized family history Content analysis was used to analyze their responses using constant comparative method
    Key Findings


    There were no significant differences in the change in MVPA between the schools.


    A bigger percentage of parents admit to talking to their children about obesity i.e. child-fat talk. Generally, sons are easier to talk to than daughters The results indicated that choice inertia decreased and the overall rate of food selection increased among participants receiving the strongest intervention condition From the results of the survey, it was revealed that there are distinct causes of childhood obesity that can be prevented or treated using parents, specifically, fathers. They can be used to identify child excess weight at an early stage and work towards correcting the situation. This also includes identifying barriers to changing behaviour and overcoming them.


    According to the authors, the overall small physical activity intensity pattern shift supports that physical activity is an important area to target within a multicomponent nutrition intervention aimed at preventing childhood obesity. Literature Review: Childhood Obesity The study recommended the use of different types of talks about obesity. The study therefore recommended that better food choices can help make any dietary behaviour intervention better The article therefore recommends fathers as the best parents to base the intervention on. It also recommends engaging mothers as well.
    Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone


    The study provides an in-depth analysis into how physical activity can be used as an intervention to prevent childhood obesity. The results will be used to compare with those found after the capstone project is complete. This article introduces childhood obesity from the parent’s perspective. It assumes that parents are directly responsible for their children and that they would be able to talk them into better eating habits, thereby stopping obesity. This is an intervention that can be exploited further by the capstone project The article provides a new intervention that scrutinizes the effectiveness of having a dietary behaviour intervention. Indeed, there are several other factors that contribute to this. It is important to have counter measures for every intervention adopted. This study gave me a different approach to the intervention involving parents. It proves that the best intervention would involve both parents and practitioners. This is the idea that I would replicate in my capstone project.





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