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Major Minerals and Water Assignment

Major Minerals and Water Assignment

Major Minerals and Water Assignment

Directions. Using Chapters 12, and the DRI tables (pp A, B) in your textbook as a reference, answer the following questions. Please include the questions with your answers. Be sure to put your name on your document. Your answers should be thoughtful, complete, and in Standard English. Credit will not be given for answers copied from online sources.

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    StudyGuide8Module9MajorMineralsWater15e-1.doc

    DNT 200 — NUTRITION FOR HEALTH SCIENCE PRIVATE

    STUDY GUIDE 8: MAJOR MINERALS AND WATER

    Directions. Using Chapters 12, and the DRI tables (pp A, B) in your textbook as a reference, answer the following questions. Please include the questions with your answers. Be sure to put your name on your document. Your answers should be thoughtful, complete, and in Standard English. Credit will not be given for answers copied from online sources. Major Minerals and Water Assignment

    1. Define these terms:

    Adrenal glands

    Aldosterone

    Angiotensin I

    Angiotensin II

    Angiotensinogen

    Anions

    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

    Bicarbonate

    Binders

    Bioavailability

    Bottled water

    Buffers

    Calcitonin

    Calcium

    Calcium-binding protein

    Calcium tetany

    Calmodulin

    Carbonic acid

    Cations

    Chloride

    Dehydration

    Dissociates

    Electrolytes

    Electrolyte solutions

    Extracellular fluid

    Hard water

    Hydroxyapatite

    Hyponatremia

    Hypothalamus

    Interstitial fluid

    Intracellular fluid

    Intravascular fluid

    Ions

    Magnesium

    Major mineral

    Metabolic water

    Milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L)

    Mineralization

    Obligatory water excretion

    Oral rehydration therapy (ORT)

    Osmosis

    Osmotic pressure

    Osteopenia

    Osteoporosis

    Parathyroid hormone

    Phosphorus

    Potassium

    Peak bone mass

    Renin

    Salt

    Sodium

    Soft water

    Solutes

    Sulfate

    Sulfur

    Thirst

    Trace mineral

    Vasoconstrictor

    Water balance

    Water intoxication

    2. Mrs. Atkinson has recently seen and heard a lot about the amount of salt in foods. She has been surprised by the number of nutrition web sites that recommend that people decrease the amount of salt in their food. If sodium is such a bad thing, Mrs. Atkinson wonders, why do you need to have any at all? How would you explain this to her?

    3. Evelina is a vegan. She stopped eating meat and dairy products when she was a teenager. She is now in her early thirties. She wants to start a family but is concerned about whether she can obtain enough calcium in her diet to ensure her baby’s health. She is also concerned that she might be at risk for osteoporosis. How can Evelina consume enough calcium to meet her own and her baby’s needs?

    4. Josh H. is a 17-year-old high school football player who has been doing “two-a-day” practices in preparation for the upcoming season. He is in good physical condition at 5 feet 10 inches and 165 pounds. He is attempting to gain weight, so he has increased his intake of protein foods and estimates he eats approximately 3500 kcalories a day. One particularly hot afternoon, Josh is sweating profusely and begins to feel weak and has a difficult time keeping up with his usual practice routines. Noticing that his face is visibly flushed, his coach has him sit out of practice. Josh reports having eaten 2 peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, potato chips, and a can of soda for lunch about 2 hours before practice. He had a breakfast burrito with eggs and cheese for breakfast with a 12 ounce glass of orange juice.

    a. What signs of dehydration does Josh exhibit?

    b. Based on these signs of dehydration, what percentage of body fluid would you estimate Josh has lost?

    c. Along with water, what essential nutrients has Josh’s body most likely lost as a result of his heavy sweating?

    d. Using his reported caloric intake, estimate Josh’s fluid needs in liters.

    e. Besides fruit juice and soda, what foods and beverages could help meet Josh’s fluid requirement?

    f. What food groups appear to be deficient in Josh’s usual diet? What essential minerals are likely to be lacking as a result of his limited diet?

    5. Lyn is a 43-year-old African American woman in reasonably good health. Her mother has high blood pressure and recently suffered a mild stroke. Lyn, who sometimes has her mother over for meals, has decided to look more closely at the sodium content of the food she prepares for her family. Major Minerals and Water Assignment

    She is planning to prepare a casserole for her family and looks up the sodium content in milligrams (mg) for the main ingredients:

    · 2 cups roasted chicken (120 mg sodium per cup)

    · 1 can cream of chicken soup (800 mg sodium per ½ cup serving, 2.5 servings per can)

    · 1 cup grated cheese (180 mg sodium per ¼ cup)

    · 2 cups frozen broccoli (40 mg sodium per cup)

    · 1 teaspoon salt (480 mg sodium per ¼ teaspoon)

    · ¼ teaspoon curry powder (0 mg sodium)

    · Pepper (0 mg sodium)

    a. According to the Dietary Guidelines mentioned in Chapter 12 of your text, what is the recommendation regarding sodium intake in milligrams for Lyn and her family?

    b. Assuming her recipe serves four, calculate the milligrams (mg) of sodium in one serving of Lyn’s casserole. Show your work.

    c. How does this meal contribute to her family’s daily sodium goal addressed in question 5a, above?

    d. Using the information in the “How To 12-1” feature on page 371 in chapter 12 of your text, what general changes might Lyn make to decrease the amount of sodium in this recipe?

    e. Assume that Lyn has found a lower-sodium soup for her recipe (528 mg sodium per serving, 2 servings per can). Using this product and other changes you suggested in question 5d, above, revise her original recipe and recalculate the sodium content of one serving. Show your work.

    f. Using information from chapter 12 of your text, what other nutrition strategies might help Lyn plan meals for her family that could help lower blood pressure?

    6. Your classmate Lydia has questions about water. Help her by discussing how the concept of obligatory water excretion helps to explain how fluid balance is regulated in the individual. What factors may lead to alterations in the obligatory water excretion process in the body?

    7. Discuss the factors that affect the bioavailability of a mineral? Why is this significant in terms of functionality of minerals in the body?

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