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Psychology: The Science of Behavior

Psychology: The Science of Behavior

Psychology: The Science of Behavior

Will choose ONE of the following essay questions to answer:

1) Discuss the claim that Psychology is a science, using a specific psychological research study from the field of Psychology to support your argument.

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2) Referring to a specific research study, discuss why it is important for researchers to consider research ethics.3) Using the example of a psychological research study, discuss a theoretical model or approach that underpins the field of psychology

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    PsySOB1Handbook2019-20201.docx

    Psychology, the Science of Behaviour 1: Conceptual and Historical Issues, Clinical, Cognitive and Humanistic Psychology

     

     

    ucl.ac.uk/ioe

    Module Handbook

    2019-20

    UCL Institute of Education

    University of London

    20 Bedford Way

    LONDON

    WC1H 0AL

    Tel: +44(0)2076126000

     

    Psychology, The Science of Behaviour 1: Conceptual and Historical Issues, Clinical, Cognitive and Humanistic Psychology (PHDE0067)

    Key module information

    Credits: 15
    Term time: October to December 2019
    Lectures: Wednesdays 9:30 – 11:30
    Venue: Elvin Hall, 20 Bedford Way
    Assessment: Coursework: One 1500 word (+/-10%) essay (50% weighting). Please upload an electronic copy only via Moodle.

    Exam: One hour MCQ exam (50% weighting).

    Deadlines: Coursework essay: 11:59pm (i.e. 23.59) on Monday 9th December 2019

    Exam: TBC by the exams office (during the main UCL exam period)

    Feedback: Approximately one month after submission

    Contact and support:

    Module leader: Dr. Amy Harrison a.harrison@ucl.ac.uk

    Module administrator: ioe.bscpsywithed@ucl.ac.uk

    Module Team: Dr. Jane Hurry, Dr Dawn Male, Dr Liory Fern-Pollak

    Module Overview:

    Date: Lecture title: Lecturer: Room:
    2/10/19 Psychology as a Science: Philosophy of Science, process of hypothesis testing. Can Psychology be regarded as a science? Amy Harrison Elvin Hall
    9/10/19 Historical Issues in Psychology and Essay writing skills Amy Harrison Elvin Hall
    16/10/19 Clinical Psychology 1: Paradigms in Clinical Psychology. DSM classification system of disorders Amy Harrison Elvin Hall
    23/10/19 Clinical Psychology 2: Therapies Amy Harrison Elvin Hall
    30/10/19 Essay writing skills tutorial. Academic Skills Team Elvin Hall
    4-8 Nov Reading week

     

    13/11/19 Language Liory Fern-Pollak Elvin Hall
    20/11/19 Motivation Dawn Male Elvin Hall
    27/11/19 Learning Jane Hurry Elvin Hall
    4/12/19 Perception: Sensory Processes – Visual perception, audition. Liory Fern-Pollak Elvin Hall
    11/12/19 Revision session and end of term practice MCQ test Amy Harrison Elvin Hall

    Module aims and learning objectives

    Aims and Intended Learning Outcomes

    Module Aims

     

    · To introduce students to research and theory across the various key subfields that comprise psychology: historical and conceptual perspectives in psychology, clinical psychology, cognitive psychology (language, learning, memory and perception) and humanistic psychology (motivation).

    · To introduce students to a range of theoretical issues and scientific research methodologies to assist them with the understanding of human behaviour and mental processes.

    · To develop students’ ability to engage critically with a range of literature.

    Learning Outcomes

    By the end of this module, students should be able to:

    · Understand key concepts and issues in psychology and be able to demonstrate that understanding by applying them to contemporary debates

    · Develop their ability, resources and confidence to study challenging texts relevant to issues in the field of psychology

    · Develop their ability to assess arguments and make critical judgments concerning psychological theory and research

     

    Assessment

    This module is assessed by two components, one essay and one hour multiple choice exam (40 items). Please check the programme Moodle space for details on assessment and grade-related criteria.

    Component 1: Essay

    You will be required to submit one 1500 word essay (+/- 10%). Your deadline for submitting the essay is 11:59pm (i.e. 23:59) on Monday 9th December 2019.

    Please make sure you upload one (1) electronic copy via Moodle. You will choose ONE of the following essay questions to answer:

    1. Discuss the claim that Psychology is a science, using a specific psychological research study from the field of Psychology to support your argument.

     

    1. Referring to a specific research study, discuss why it is important for researchers to consider research ethics.

    1. Using the example of a psychological research study, discuss a theoretical model or approach that underpins the field of psychology

     

    Essay workshop

    As well as a general tutorial session on assessment integrated into your introduction lecture, you will attend one essay-specific workshop. You will need to come prepared to the workshop with a plan/outline of your essay (e.g. in bullet point form). Information about the workshop dates will be posted on Moodle.

    Additional essay guidelines

    Please refer to the essay resources provided on the module Moodle page and further essay writing resources and support provided on the programme Moodle page. Your essay will be based on the review of the literature and research (e.g. both theory and empirical research) and should be written using academic language. When planning your essay a good starting place is the lecture slides, core readings and further readings outlined in the session content descriptions; however, you are expected to cite literature and research beyond those provided on the course. Essays should cite reliable empirical evidence (e.g. evidence found in peer-reviewed journal articles through the library electronic resource webpages); you should not rely on unreliable review sources (e.g. Psychology review websites such as Psychology Today or Simply Psychology). A critical evaluation of theoretical and empirical evidence is imperative in order to achieve a well-informed argument and a good grade. Psychology: The Science of Behavior

    You must follow American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines when referencing (when citing within the essay and formatting your reference section at the end of the essay) and formatting your assignment. You can find a copy of the APA 6th edition handbook in the library. Please also refer to the general guidelines for submitting assignments, which can be found in your programme handbook.

    Anonymous marking

    Please do not put your name or student ID on your assignment. You must upload your essay assignment to Moodle for anonymized marking.

    Feedback

    You will receive written feedback on your essay a month after submission. You will also receive general feedback via Moodle, or in class. Please apply this feedback to your future assignments.

    Component 2: Exam

    You will be required to sit a 1 hour exam. The exam will take place during the main UCL exam period in the Spring term 2020 (exact time and location TBC by the Exams Office). This will cover all material discussed in the module. You will be asked to answer 40 multiple choice questions (MCQs).

    Additional exam guidelines

    In the last session of the module we will take a practice multiple choice exam and discuss revision.

    Feedback

    As well as a grade, you will receive general feedback on the exam across the cohort. This feedback will be provided one month after the exam date and will be posted to Moodle.

     

    Session outlines

     

    Psychology: The Science of Behaviour: Lecture Summaries

     

    02.10.19 Psychology as a Science Amy Harrison

     

    Can Psychology be regarded as a science? In this session we will explore the Philosophy of Science, and the process of hypothesis testing. We will consider how psychologists work with data, using descriptive statistics, and correlations to summarise the pattern of their data; and the use of inferential statistics. We will look at the role of observational studies and experiments in assessing cause and effect and the importance of research ethics. The power of the scientific method is critically evaluated and alternative methodologies are considered.

     

    Please read before the first session:

     

    Gleitman, H., Gross, J. & Reisberg, D. (2011). Psychology: International Student Edition (8th edition). New York, London: W.W. Norton & Co. (Prologue: What Is Psychology & Chapter 1: Research Methods).

    Zimbardo, P. G. (2004). Does psychology make a significant difference in our lives? American Psychologist, 59 (5), 339–351.

    http://www.zimbardo.com/downloads/2004%20Psychology%20makes%20a%20significant%20difference.pdf

    Sutton, J. (2014) A new game plan for psychological science. The Psychologist, 27 (4), 222-223. (in the News Section of the April edition)

     

     

     

    09.10.19 Historical Issues in Psychology Amy Harrison

     

     

    How did psychology originate? When did it begin? Who were the people responsible for establishing psychology as a separate science? This session describes how from the time of the Ancient Greeks to the mid-19th century, philosophers and scientists thought about the relationship between mind, body and soul. Students are introduced to important early psychologists and the main schools of psychological theory including introspection, psychoanalysis, functionalism, psychometrics, gestalt, behaviourism and humanistic psychology. Psychology: The Science of Behavior

     

     

    Reading:

    Valentine, E. (2008) The Other Woman: the story of Nellie Carey, one of the first women members of the BPS. Part of the British Psychological Society History of Psychology

    https://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-21/edition-1/looking-back

    Hacking, I. (2007) Kinds of People, Moving Targets. (p1-18) This British Academy lecture investigates the ways in which people who are classified interact with their classifications.

    http://nurs7009philosophyofinquiry.weebly.com/uploads/6/0/4/0/6040397/hacking_20071.pdf

     

     

    16.10.19 Clinical Psychology 1 Amy Harrison

     

    This session will provide a review of how mental disorder has been conceptualised and then discuss definition, assessment and diagnosis, with reference to the categories identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM). One of the more common disorders, anxiety disorders, is described; as are mood disorders, such as major depression and bipolar disorder; schizophrenia and other Axis 1 and Axis 11 disorders.

    Please read before the session:

     

    Gleitman, H., Gross, J. & Reisberg, D. (2011). Psychology: International Student Edition (8th edition). New York, London: W.W. Norton & Co. (Chapter 16: Psychopathology).

    Rosenhan, D. L. (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science179(4070), 250-258.

     

    Recommended book for further reading:

    Bentall, R. P.  Madness Explained: Psychosis and Human Nature. London, England: Penguin; 2003.

     

     

     

     

    23.10.19 Clinical Psychology 2 Amy Harrison

     

    The boundaries between biological and psychological aspects of contemporary treatments for mental disorders may not always be clear-cut. During this session we will consider various approaches to therapy, from psychodynamic approaches based on Freud; humanistic approaches, as exemplified by Roger’s client-centred therapy; behavioural approaches such as exposure therapy, the use of token economies; and the cognitive behavioural approaches of Ellis and Beck. Therapists may be eclectic, weaving together aspects of various approaches. We will also consider the role of biomedical treatments. These are designed to alleviate mental disorders by directly altering the brain’s functioning, with the use of a range of drugs, which can provide substantial symptom relief for many people. Methodological issues to do with difficulties in empirically evaluating treatments, such as randomised clinical trials, the placebo effect and use of meta-analysis to assess therapies are considered in more detail. Psychology: The Science of Behavior

     

     

    Please read before the session:

     

    Gleitman, H., Gross, J. & Reisberg, D. (2011). Psychology: International Student Edition (8th edition). New York, London: W.W. Norton & Co. (Chapter 17: Treatment of Mental Disorders).

     

     

    30.10.19 Essay writing skills tutorial. Academic Skills Team

       

    This session which will be delivered by expert trainers from the UCL Academic Skills Team will support you to begin to develop an understanding of the skills needed to successfully produce essays at the level expected at University. You are strongly encouraged to use this support to begin to research your essay for this module over the reading week. Psychology: The Science of Behavior

     

     

    06.11.19 Reading week – no class

     

     

     

    13.11.19 Language Liory Fern-Pollak

     

    Language is fundamental to learning and development. This session will explore the basic building blocks of language as a hierarchy of units: phonemes, morphemes, words and phrases. We will consider how language conveys meaning and look at theories of word and sentence meaning. Psychology: The Science of Behavior

    In the session we will also explore how babies learn a language and how parents support them during the early stages of development. Other questions to explore include: how is language learned in changed environments? What is the relationship between language and thought? Does the language we speak determine the way we think?

    Please read before the session:

     

    Gleitman, H., Gross, J. & Reisberg, D. (2011). Psychology: International Student Edition (8th edition). New York, London: W.W. Norton & Co. (Chapter 10: Language).

     

    Saxton, M. (2010). Child Language: Acquisition and Development. London: Sage. (Chapter 4: Input and Interaction).

     

     

     

     

     

    20.11.19 Motivation Dawn Male

     

    In this session we will look at different theoretical approaches to motivation – psychodynamic, behaviourist and humanistic. We will look at how motivation influences our behaviour: how it ‘starts, steers and stops it’. We will critically consider Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as a framework for examining motivation and we will discuss some of the practical applications in ‘real world’ situations. Psychology: The Science of Behavior

     

    Please read before the session:

     

    Gleitman, H., Gross, J. & Reisberg, D. (2011). Psychology: International Student Edition (8th edition). New York, London: W.W. Norton & Co. (Chapter 12: Motivation & Emotion).

    Larsen, R. J., & Buss, D. M. (2013). Personality Psychology. (5th edition). London: McGraw-Hill. [Chapter 11: Motives and personality, especially humanistic tradition: Maslow’s contribution, Roger’s contribution pp. 354-360.]

     

     

    27.11.19 Learning Jane Hurry

     

    What is learning? Is it a change in behaviour or understanding? We start with an overview of Learning Theory, from the simplest form of learning, habituation; classical conditioning, where animals learn about the association between one stimulus and another; to operant conditioning, where the trainer delivers a reward or reinforcement only after the animal gives the appropriate response. During this session, we will discuss the phenomenon of learned helplessness and observational learning, and the learning theory perspective will be critically evaluated. Psychology: The Science of Behavior

     

     

    Please read before the session:

     

    Gleitman, H., Gross, J. & Reisberg, D. (2011). Psychology: International Student Edition (8th edition). New York, London: W.W. Norton & Co. (Chapter 7: Learning).

     

     

     

    04.12.19 Perception: sensory processes – visual perception &

    audition Liory Fern-Pollak

    Perception is one of the building blocks of behaviour (along with our genes and our experience). In this session we will explore how the five senses interact with higher cognitive functions such as attention, to help us understand the world we live in. We will look at the different parts of the brain that process each sense, and also what happens when things go wrong. We will illustrate how clever our sensory system is by looking at optical and auditory illusions. Psychology: The Science of Behavior

    Please read before the session:

    Gleitman, H., Gross, J. & Reisberg, D. (2011). Psychology: International Student Edition (8th ed.). New York, London: W.W. Norton & Co. (Chapter 5: Perception)

     

    11.12.19 Revision Session and Practice Multiple Choice Test

    Amy Harrison

    In this session, we will work to consolidate your learning and help you to prepare for the exam which will be held in the April exam period. You will take a 40 item multiple choice during the session and you will receive feedback on this to allow you to understand where there are gaps in your knowledge. 

    Gleitman, H., Gross, J. & Reisberg, D. (2011). Psychology: International Student Edition (8th edition).

    The core textbook for this module provides some useful pedagogical techniques for students to use, if they wish. The Study Space site is organized into 3 parts:

    Organize

    Before reading each chapter, there are:

    · Chapter study plans which guide students as they work through the online materials

    · Chapter outlines which give an overview of the issues each chapter explores

    · Quiz+ allows students to learn from their mistakes with customized study plans based upon their answers to quiz questions.

     

    Learn

    These exercises help students master what they have read

    · Chapter Reviews allow students to quickly review what they have read and help them identify important concepts in each chapter.

    · Vocabulary Flashcards test knowledge of important terms and concepts.

    · There are Drag-and Drop Labelling exercises for some of the diagrams and figures in each chapter

    · Audio Podcast Chapter Overviews can be streamed online or download to portable media players for the opportunity to review chapter content on the go.

    · Visual Quizzes test student’s knowledge of the figures, charts, and diagrams in the text.

    Connect

    Here students can apply what they have learned from the chapter and make connections between concepts they have mastered.

    · Critical Thinking Activities help students solidify their knowledge of core topics from the chapter and build critical-thinking skills. They can watch interviews with researchers in brain science and cognition, and download them to a portable media player with the “Studying the Mind Video Podcasts”. Psychology: The Science of Behavior

    · There are online Video Exercises for each chapter introduce students to the current psychological research.

    · Animations clarify and explain difficult concepts from each chapter.

    · ZAPS Psychology Labs help students understand the significance of psychological research within an experimental context.

     

    We hope that you enjoy this module and look forward to working with you Any queries, please do not hesitate to ask.

  • attachment

    XWPH2_Assignment_956993_1713422090.pdf

    1

    IS PSYCHOLOGY A SCIENCE

    Is Psychology a Science?

    Candidate Number: XWPH2

    University College London

    Word Count: 1650

     

    IS PSYCHOLOGY A SCIENCE 2

    Stemming from the Latin word scientia, science has originally been described as

    ‘knowledge’, with those people searching for knowledge being defined as scientists (Williams,

    2011). Yet this definition of science differs from what has normally been perceived today,

    which is more likely to be associated with rigorous and objective research (Murray, 1999). By

    introducing the definition of science and analysing a psychological study called ‘Individual

    differences in the effects of a positive psychology intervention: Applied psychology’, this essay

    aims to discuss whether or not psychology—or this article in particular—is a science (Antoine,

    Dauview, Andreotti, & Congrad, 2017). In order to carefully examine this claim of psychology

    being a science, evidence from the article that support the claim and those that deny it will be

    thoroughly evaluated and an overview of this topic will be provided at the end.

    To begin with, science—as described in most modern works—is notable for the below

    six characteristics. First of all, science is recognized for its application and ‘review’ of previous

    literature since having ‘good grounds’ and ‘appropriate validation’ help people come up with

    reasonable and verifiable hypotheses (Shrake, Elfner, Hummon, Janson, & Free, 2006).

    According to Shrake et al., any assumption that fails to be supported by scientific evidence is—

    by definition—unscientific (2006). The second essential element of science is objectivity.

    Science is fact-based and hence should exclude all subjective opinions in order to gain reliable

    outcomes (Chalmers, 2013). Objectively formulating hypotheses sets foundations for testable

    hypotheses that allow other investigators to falsify and amend, which is the third main point of

    science (Murray, 1999; Shrake et al., 2006). Falsifiable hypothesis usually allows future

    replication or repetition of research that enable improvements (Shrake et al., 2006). Just as

    David Goostein said, ‘science is self-correcting, in the sense that a falsehood injected into the

    body of scientific knowledge will eventually be discovered and rejected’ (Shrake et al., 2006,

    p. 130). To this point, science is linked to the consideration and references of published works,

    objectivity, and the replication of the research that either verify or disprove the hypothesis. Psychology: The Science of Behavior

     

     

    IS PSYCHOLOGY A SCIENCE 3

    Fourthly, science is rigorous and logical. Formal language, clear explanations, and the

    elimination of possible confounding variables—factors other than experimental factor that

    might exert influences on the results—are all essential elements for a psychology to be

    scientific (Myers, 2014). In the fifth place, science should always take ethical issues into

    consideration. Yet as Williams (2011) and Burk (1986) reveal, this key aspect of science has

    often been neglected. It should thus be reminded that for a psychology to become a science,

    the participants should be protected by any sort of harm and their information should be kept

    confidential (Myers, 2014). Obtaining informed consent—an ethical principle that allow the

    participants to be ‘told enough’ about the study and to quit the study when they aren’t feeling

    ‘right’—and debriefing participants—a process explaining the purpose of the study and any

    deception involved after conducting the research—are hence crucial for a study to be scientific.

    Lastly, the scientific method is required to generate this ‘systematic, fact-based discipline’ of

    science (Shrake et al., 2006, p. 134). The US Supreme Court even declared in 1993 that for a

    statement ‘to qualify as “scientific knowledge”’, the scientific method must be used in advance

    (Shrake et al., 2006). While scientific method more or less contains all of the above-mentioned

    components of science, core elements of this method are observation, testable hypothesis,

    experimentation or design, and results (Shrake et al., 2006). In conclusion, for a psychology to

    be scientific, the researcher should examine earlier studies, obtain the data in an organized and

    unbiased way, purpose testable hypothesis that enable further testing, be rigorous, consider

    ethical issues, and utilize the scientific method cautiously.

    After providing the definition of science, it should be noted that the article conducted

    in France by Antoine et al. (2017) is an experimental study evaluating the influence of positive

    psychology intervention (PPI) on affective variables such as depression and anxiety and

    processual variable including mindfulness and emotional regulation. It also examines how PPI

    might exert ‘differential effects’ on individuals with different ‘baseline characteristics’

     

     

    IS PSYCHOLOGY A SCIENCE 4

    (Antoine et al., 2017). The participants are contacted from a French community and are divided

    into control (n = 43) and experimental group (n = 59) (Antoine et al., 2017). Only the

    experimental group receives the PPI and the self-assessment measures for the participants

    include ‘Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire’

    and so on (Antoine et al., 2017, p. 140). Using the statistical data, the researchers conclude that

    anxiety, depression and other affective variables have reduced while mindfulness and emotion

    regulation techniques have progressed during and after PPI (Antoine et al., 2017). These

    positive improvements are inclined to increase more when participants initially have lower

    levels of mindfulness or positive reappraisal (Antoine et al., 2017).

    Applying the criteria of science described above, psychology does appear to be

    scientific in this article as all six components of psychology are incorporated in the paper. For

    instance, the main aspects of PPI are designed based on thorough inspection of previous

    researchers’ experiences and the literature (Antoine et al., 2017). The study is also objective in

    a sense in which all scales and measurements are quantitatively analysed, with the article being

    written mainly in a third-person point of view (Antoine et al., 2017). Besides, this paper’s

    hypotheses of people’s decrease in ‘anxiety, depression, and psychological distress’ and their

    enhancement in mindfulness as well as emotional control after PPI are tested and verified with

    evidence from the study (Antoine et al., 2017). The necessity of future investigations is

    indicated, and the repetition of the experiments is possible as the methods and application

    strategies of the article are well-described (Antoine et al., 2017). For the fourth feature of

    science, this study gains approval from the French Ethical Research Comity Nord Quest III and

    it follows the instructions of the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and other ethical guidelines

    (Antoine et al., 2017). Confidentiality of the participants’ information is maintained as none of

    the people other than the researchers or the staff members know the exact information of a

     

     

    IS PSYCHOLOGY A SCIENCE 5

    specific person (Antoine et al., 2017). Informed consents have been signed and enough

    information of the study are given to the participants (Antoine et al., 2017).

    Apart from these, this article also includes the fifth and sixth features of science—its

    logic, its rigorous manner and its use of scientific method. As an example of this, the article

    has been peer-reviewed, which provides credibility, ensures clarity of the language used, and

    excludes certain subjective opinions. It has been organized into abstract, introduction, method,

    results, discussion, and references with a logical flow from one section to the next. The

    observation, hypotheses, experimentation, and conclusion—which constitute the scientific

    method—are all present. Procedure flowchart, statistical data, and graphs are introduced in

    addition to strengthen the explanation of the results and findings. In order to accurately

    demonstrate the influence of PPI, only the data of those participants who have completed 75%

    of the PPI are taken for analysis (Antoine et al., 2017). This guarantees that the outcome of the

    study is caused by PPI alone rather than other confounding factors. So far, these six facets of

    science have all been acquired, indicating that psychology is a science when regarding solely

    of this article. Psychology: The Science of Behavior

    However, despite the authors’ attempts to create this scientific atmosphere, several

    ‘flaws’ demonstrating the unscientific aspects of psychology also emerge in the article. Biases

    and subjectivity are those who render this article unscientific. For instance, due to the

    participants’ knowledge and expectations of the PPI and the possible unintentional implication

    or expectations of the investigators, the participants might be more likely to observe positive

    emotions or improvements that they have previously neglected. This might lead to imprecise

    data since participants might rate themselves closer to the healthier and better scale.

    Furthermore, there is no random sampling—meaning that the population hasn’t been equally

    represented (Myers, 2014). Instead, the sample has been ‘chosen’ from the related social circles

    of Lille University Psychology students and participants are self-selected to participate and to

     

     

    IS PSYCHOLOGY A SCIENCE 6

    be follow up (Antoine et al., 2017). Yet even the authors themselves notice that PPIs yield

    better results when their programs are consistent with the participants’ interests and beliefs

    (Antoine et al., 2017). The failure of random assignment—a method in which the control and

    the experimental groups are randomly assigned to ‘minimize’ the ‘pre-existing differences’

    between the two groups—further contributes to the unscientific atmosphere and gives rise to

    the differences in education level and professional status (Myers, 2014; Antoine et al., 2017).

    Hence the results of the experiment might not be due to PPI alone, the educational level and

    the professional status might also be influential. Besides, some measures in the experiment—

    such as the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale and the questionnaires on anxiety and

    depression—have answers arranged on scales indicating the frequency or severity of the tested

    targets (Antoine et al., 2017). This might as well be a source of inaccuracy since people have

    different sense of their situations and two people choosing the same number might have

    significant difference in their actual conditions. Hence analysing from this perspective,

    psychology can never truly become scientific since people are always different hence

    experiences or observed ‘facts’ are always subjective (Chalmers, 2013).

    Overall, this assignment endeavours to find out whether psychology is a science by

    defining the concept of science and see if the psychological article fits with these components

    of science. While this psychological paper does attain all requirements of ‘science’, people are

    always subjective to biases and subjective beliefs and one can argues that psychology can never

    fully reach the state of true objectivity and scientific. Thus, to a certain extent, psychology is a

    science, yet it is always influenced by unpredictable factors such that its scientific data become

    unscientific, unreliable ones. Psychology: The Science of Behavior

     

     

     

     

    IS PSYCHOLOGY A SCIENCE 7

    References

    Antoine, P., Dauvier, B., Andreotti, E., & Congrad A. (2017). Individual differences in the

    effects of a positive psychology intervention: Applied psychology. Personality and

    Individual Differences, 122, 140-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.10.024

    Burk, M. (1986). The scientific method. Science, 231(4739), 659.

    https://www.jstor.org/stablr/1696283

    Chalmers, A. (2013). What is this thing called science? University of Queensland Press.

    Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

    Murray, R. W. (1999). The scientific method. Analytical Chemistry, 71(5), 153A. doi:

    10.1021/ac990210y

    Myers, D. G. (2014). Myer’s Psychology for AP. New York: Worth Publishers.

    Shrake, D. L., Elfner, L. E., Hummon, W. W., Janson, R., & Free, M. (2006). What is

    science? Ohio Journal of Science, 106(4), 130-135. http://hdl.handle.net/1811/36490

    Williams, J. (2011). How do scientists work. In H R. Toplis (Ed.), How science works:

    Exploring effective pedagogy and practice (pp. 31-43). London; New York:

    Routledge.

     

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