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The Case of the Man with the Weak Arm

The Case of the Man with the Weak Arm

The Case of the Man with the Weak Arm

Albert, a seventy-two year old African-American man, is brought into the emergency room by his daughter. Approximately 45 minutes before arriving, Albert dropped his book when his right arm and hand “fell asleep”. When he tried to rise, he noticed his right leg was weak and he needed to hold onto the couch to stand up. He had a difficult time talking because the right side of his face and mouth were “numb” and his tongue felt “thick”. The Case of the Man with the Weak Arm


In obtaining a medical and family history it was noted that Albert has smoked at least 1 pack of cigarettes per day for the last 40 years and both of his parents died of strokes when they were in their mid sixties. He has previously been diagnosed with both essential hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. He admits to “skipping” his anti-hypertensive medication because of the unpleasant side effects it causes. Albert notes that he has been experiencing short (5 – 10 minutes) incidences of weakness on his right side, but he attributed this to the position he was in, causing his arm or leg to “fall asleep”. He has also noticed that he is having mild headaches, but recently, these have been less frequent.

Physical examination indicated that Albert was alert and anxious, but his speech was slurred. He was afebrile, had a respiratory rate of 16 breaths per minute, a regular heart rate of 86 beats per minute and a blood pressure of 190/120 mm Hg. Albert had no irregular heart sounds and presented with slight bilateral edema of the ankles. Examination of the nervous system indicated intact tactile sensory function, decreased strength of the right extremities, a diminished gag reflex, diminished right deep tendon reflexes, and right facial droop. Based on these symptoms the emergency room physician suspected a thrombolytic stroke and immediately ordered a head CT scan and various blood tests. The physician also discussed the relative benefits and risks of various treatments and courses of action with Albert and his daughter. Albert was given aspirin for possible thrombosis and a b-blocking anti-hypertensive and his condition was monitored closely while awaiting the test results. The Case of the Man with the Weak Arm

Results of the laboratory tests indicated hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, normal blood clotting times and platelet numbers. In addition, the head CT was normal. Despite the treatments initiated, Albert’s condition continued to deteriorate. While his blood pressure decreased to 170/84 mm Hg, his heart rate was elevated to 100 beats per minute and became irregular. He continued to demonstrate decreased sensation on his right side, slight dysarthria, and further decreases in strength in both right extremities. Based on these results, treatment with plasminogen activator was initiated and an electrocardiogram (ECG) was conducted. The results of the ECG indicated atrial flutter.

After 5 hours, Albert’s condition improved to the point that the hemiparesis and dysarthria were at baseline levels and his blood pressure was stabilized at 156/70 mm Hg. Further treatments were then initiated to stabilize Albert’s atrial flutter and hypertension. He was given digoxin, which stabilized the atrial flutter and heart rate at 80 beats per minute and an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor was prescribed for the hypertension. An echo-cardiogram indicated bilateral stenosis of the carotid arteries. Anti-thrombolytic therapy (325 mg aspirin/day) was also prescribed. Albert was encouraged to stop smoking and to modify his diet and was discharged. The Case of the Man with the Weak Arm

What symptoms suggested that Albert was having a stroke? What risk factors did Albert present which would support the symptoms observed? Why does Albert’s treatment include aspirin?

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    Nervous System and Mental Health

    Chapter 10

    Related Combining Forms

    Structure Related Combining Forms
    Brain cerebr/o, encephal/o
    Spinal cord myel/o
    Nerves neur/i, neur/o

    Functions of Nervous System

    Coordinates and controls all activities of the body

    Structures of Nervous System



    Spinal cord

    Sensory organs

    Eyes, ears, nose, skin, tongue

    Divisions of Nervous System

    Two primary parts

    Central nervous system (CNS)

    Includes brain and spinal cord

    Receives and processes information

    Regulates all activities of the body

    Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

    12 pairs of cranial nerves

    31 pairs of spinal nerves

    Transmits signals to and from CNS



    One or more bundles of neurons connecting brain and spinal cord with other parts of the body


    Bundle of nerve fibers located within the brain or spinal cord



    Cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS


    Supply of nerves to specific body part


    Network of intersecting spinal nerves



    Sites in sensory organs receiving external stimulation

    Sensory neurons send stimulus to the brain for interpretation


    Anything that activates a nerve and causes an impulse


    Automatic, involuntary response to some change, either inside or outside the body. The Case of the Man with the Weak Arm


    Changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure

    Responses to painful stimuli


    Basic cells of nervous system

    Allow different parts of the body to communicate with each other



    Carry impulses toward the cell body


    Carries impulses away from the cell body


    Terminal end fibers

    Branching fibers at the end of an axon that lead a nerve impulse from the axon to the synapse


    Space between two neurons or between a neuron and a receptor organ


    Chemical substances allowing messages to cross from synapse of a neuron to a target receptor


    Acetycholine, dopamine, endorphins, norepinephrine

    Glial Cells

    Four main functions

    Surround neurons and hold them in place

    Supply nutrients/oxygen to neurons

    Insulate one neuron from another

    Destroy and remove dead neurons

    Myelin Sheath

    Protective covering made of glial cells

    Myelinated nerve fibers = white matter

    (myelinated: having a myelin sheath)

    Unmyelinated nerve fibers = gray matter

    (unmyelinated: lacking a myelin sheath)

    Central Nervous System. The Case of the Man with the Weak Arm

    Brain and spinal cord

    Protected externally by bones of cranium and vertebrae of spinal column


    Enclose brain and spinal cord

    Three layers

    Dura mater: outermost membrane

    Arachnoid membrane: second layer; resembles spider web

    Pia mater: inner layer; nearest to brain/spinal cord

    Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Produced within the four ventricles in the middle region of cerebrum

    Clear, colorless, watery fluid

    Cools and cushions brain and spinal cord

    Nourishes brain and spinal cord by transporting nutrients/chemical messengers to these tissues

    Parts of Brain

    Parts of Brain

    Parts of Brain


    Largest and uppermost portion of brain

    Responsible for thought, judgment, memory, emotion, integration of motor and sensory functions

    Cerebral cortex (cerebr: brain; -al: pertaining to)

    Outer layer of cerebrum; made of gray matter

    Gyri: folds of gray matter in cerebral cortex

    Sulci: fissures of cerebral cortex

    Cerebral Hemispheres

    Two hemispheres


    Controls majority of functions on right side of the body


    Controls most of functions on left side of the body

    Connected at lowest midpoint by corpus callosum

    Cerebral Lobes

    Divisions of cerebral hemispheres

    Frontal lobe

    Controls skilled motor functions, memory, behavior

    Parietal lobe

    Receives/interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors in tongue, skin, and muscles

    Cerebral Lobes

    Occipital lobe

    Controls eyesight

    Temporal lobe

    Controls senses of hearing and smell

    Controls ability to create, store, and access a new information


    Located below the cerebrum

    Relays impulses to and from cerebrum and the sense organs. The Case of the Man with the Weak Arm


    Located below the thalamus


    Autonomic nervous system

    Emotional responses

    Body temperature

    Food intake and water balance

    Sleep-wakefulness cycle

    Pituitary gland/endocrine system activity


    Second-largest part of the brain

    Located at the back of the head below the posterior portion of cerebrum

    Receives messages regarding movement within joints, muscle tone, and positions

    Produces coordinated movements, maintains equilibrium, sustains normal postures


    Stalk-like portion of brain that connects cerebral hemispheres with spinal cord

    Three parts



    Medulla oblongata

    Spinal Cord

    Tube-like structure that begins at the end of the brainstem and continues down to almost the bottom of the spinal cord

    Surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid and meninges

    Pathway for impulses to and from the brain

    Peripheral Nervous System

    12 pairs of cranial nerves extending from the brain

    31 pairs of spinal nerves extending from the spinal cord

    Three specialized peripheral nerves

    Autonomic nerve fibers

    Sensory nerve fibers

    Somatic nerve fibers

    Cranial Nerves

    Originate from under surface of the brain

    Identified as Roman numerals

    Named for area or function

    Nerves of a pair are identical in function and structure

    Each nerve of a pair serves half of the body

    Peripheral Spinal Nerves

    Named based on the region they innervate

    Referred to by numbers

    Cervical (C1–C8)

    Thoracic (T1–T12)

    Lumbar (L1–L5)

    Sacral (S1–S5)

    Autonomic Nervous System

    Controls involuntary actions of the body. The Case of the Man with the Weak Arm

    Two divisions

    Sympathetic nerves

    Fight-or-flight (response to emergencies)

    Increases respiratory rate, heart rate, blood flow

    Parasympathetic nerves

    Returns body to normal after a response to stress

    Maintains body functions when no emotional or physical stress occurs

    Medical Specialties Related to Nervous System


    (an-: without; esthesi: feeling; -ologist: specialist)

    Specializes in administering anesthetic agents before/during surgery


    (esthet: feeling; -ist: specialist)

    Medical professional (not a physician) specializing in administering anesthesia

    Medical Specialties Related to Nervous System


    (neur: nerve)

    Specializes in diagnosing/treating diseases/disorders of nervous system


    Specializes in surgery of nervous system

    Medical Specialties Related to Nervous System


    (psych: mind)

    Specializes in diagnosing/treating chemical dependencies, emotional problems, mental illness


    Specializes in evaluating/treating emotional problems and mental illness

    Doctoral degree, but is not a medical doctor

    Pathology of the Nervous System

    Head and Meninges



    (cephal: head; -algia: pain)

    Migraine headache

    Often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light; warning aura may be perceived

    Cluster headaches

    Repeatedly affect one side of the head

    Conditions of Head and Meninges

    Encephalocele (encephala/o: brain; -cele: hernia)

    Congenital herniation of brain tissue through gap in the skull

    Meningocele (mening/o: meninges)

    Congenital herniation of meninges through defect in skull or spinal column

    Hydrocephalus (hydr/o: water; cephal: head)

    Excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain

    Conditions of Head and Meninges

    Meningioma (mening/i: meninges; -oma: tumor)

    Slow-growing, usually benign tumor of meninges

    Meningitis (mening: meninges; -itis: inflammation)

    Inflammation of meninges of the brain and the spinal cord. The Case of the Man with the Weak Arm

    May be bacterial or viral

    Disorders of Brain


    Progressive decline in mental abilities, often accompanied by personality changes

    Vascular dementia

    Due to stroke or other restriction of blood flow to the brain

    Encephalitis (encephal: brain)

    Inflammation of the brain

    Disorders of Brain

    Reye’s syndrome

    May follow viral illness treated with aspirin


    Potentially fatal infection of CNS caused by toxin produced by tetanus bacteria

    Tourette syndrome

    Neurological disorder characterized by involuntary movements and sounds

    Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Alzheimer’s disease

    Progressive deterioration that affects memory and reasoning capabilities

    Parkinson’s disease

    Degenerative disorder leading to progressive loss of the control of movements

    Due to inadequate level of dopamine

    Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Rapidly progressive disease attacking nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles

    Brain Injuries


    Total or partial inability to recall past experiences


    (concuss: shaken together; -ion: condition or state of)

    Violent shaking or jarring of the brain, which may result in temporary loss of awareness

    Brain Injuries

    Cerebral contusion

    Bruising of brain tissue due to brain bouncing against rigid bone of the skull

    (contus: bruise; -ion: condition)

    Cranial hematoma

    Collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain

    (hemat: blood; -oma: tumor)

    Traumatic Brain Injury

    Damage to the brain ranging from mild to severe


    Shaken baby syndrome

    Results from child being violently shaken

    May result in brain injury, blindness, fractures, seizures, paralysis, and death

    Levels of Consciousness


    Awake, alert, aware, responding appropriately


    Unaware and unable to respond to stimuli


    Lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness, and apathy

    Levels of Consciousness


    Unresponsive; arouses only briefly despite repeated attempts


    Brief loss of consciousness due to decreased blood flow to the brain; fainting

    Levels of Consciousness


    Deep state of unconsciousness; no spontaneous eye movements or response to painful stimuli or speech

    Persistent vegetative state

    Alternating sleep/wake cycles, but person remains unconscious


    Acute confusion, disorientation, disordered thinking/memory, agitation, and hallucinations

    Brain Tumors

    Malignant brain tumor

    Destroys brain tissue

    May be primary or secondary

    Benign brain tumor

    Does not invade brain tissue, but pressure may damage tissue

    Intracranial pressure (intra-: within; crani: cranium; -al: pertaining to)

    Amount of pressure inside the skull


    Cerebrovascular accident

    Damage to the brain due to disrupted blood flow


    Facial droop (one side of face droops)

    Arm drift (arm drifts down when extended)

    Speech abnormality (slurred speech)

    Time (early emergency treatment)

    Ischemic Stroke. The Case of the Man with the Weak Arm

    Due to blockage of the carotid artery

    Transient ischemic attack

    Temporary interruption in blood flow to the brain


    (a-: without; -phasia: speech)

    Loss of ability to speak, write, or comprehend written/spoken word

    Often results from a stroke

    Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Occurs due to leakage of blood vessel in the brain

    Arteriovenous malformation

    (arteri/o: artery; ven: vein; -ous: pertaining to)

    May cause hemorrhagic stroke

    Abnormal connections between arteries and veins in the brain

    Sleep Disorders


    (in-: without; somn: sleep; -ia: abnormal condition)

    Prolonged or abnormal inability to sleep


    (narc/o: stupor; -lepsy: seizure)

    Sudden uncontrollable brief episodes of falling asleep during the day

    Sleep Disorders

    Sleep deprivation

    Lack of restorative sleep resulting in physical or psychiatric symptoms; affects routine performance


    Sleep walking

    (somn: sleep; ambul: walk; -ism: condition of)

    Spinal Cord


    Inflammation of the spinal cord

    (myel: spinal cord or bone marrow)


    Tumor of the spinal cord

    Spinal Cord


    Contagious viral infection of brainstem and spinal cord

    May lead to paralysis

    (poli/o: gray matter; myel: spinal cord)

    Pinched Nerves


    Inflammation of the root of the spinal nerve causing pain and numbness radiating down the affected limb

    (radicul: root or nerve root)

    Named for the area affected

    Cervical radiculopathy

    Lumbar radiculopathy

    Multiple Sclerosis

    Progressive autoimmune disorder

    Demyelination of myelin sheath due to inflammation that scars brain, spinal cord, optic nerves

    Scarring disrupts transmission of nerve impulses


    Bell’s palsy

    Temporary paralysis of 17th cranial nerve

    Guillain–Barré syndrome

    Inflammation of myelin sheath of the peripheral nerves

    Muscle weakness leads to temporary paralysis

    May occur after viral infection


    Neuritis (neur: nerve)

    Inflammation of nerve accompanied by pain and/or loss of function


    Inflammation of sciatic nerve resulting in pain, burning, tingling along the course of nerve

    Trigeminal neuralgia

    Pain due to inflammation of the fifth cranial nerve

    Cerebral Palsy

    Poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects due to damage of the cerebrum

    Occurs most frequently in premature or low-birth-weight infants

    Usually caused by injury during pregnancy, birth, or soon after birth

    Epilepsy and Seizures

    Chronic neurological condition characterized by seizures of varying severity


    Sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain affecting how person feels/acts for a short time

    Epilepsy and Seizures

    Tonic–clonic seizure (grand mal seizure)

    Involves entire body

    Tonic phase: body becomes rigid

    Clonic phase: uncontrolled jerking

    Absence seizure (petit mal seizure)

    Brief disturbance in the brain leading to the loss of awareness

    Abnormal Sensations


    Persistent, severe burning pain following injury to the sensory nerve

    (caus: burning; -algia: pain)


    (hyper-: excessive; -esthesia: sensation or feeling)

    Abnormal/excessive sensitivity to touch, pain or other sensory stimuli

    Abnormal Sensations


    Burning, prickling sensation in hands, arms, legs, or feet

    (par-: abnormal; -esthesia: sensation or feeling)

    Peripheral neuropathy

    (neur/o: nerve; -pathy: disease)

    Disorder of peripheral nerves

    Produces pain, loss of sensation, and inabilty to control muscles, particularly in arms/legs

    Abnormal Sensations

    Restless legs syndrome

    Uncomfortable feelings in legs, producing strong urge to move them

    Usually most noticeable at night or when trying to rest

    Diagnostic Procedures of Nervous System

    Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography

    Facilitate examination of soft tissues of the brain and the spinal cord

    Functional MRI

    Detects changes in blood flow in the brain when patient is asked to perform a specific task

    Diagnostic Procedures of Nervous System

    Carotid ultrasonography

    Ultrasound study of the carotid artery to detect plaque buildup or to diagnose a stroke

    (ultra-: beyond; son/o: sound; -graphy: the process of producing a picture or record)


    Use of ultrasound imaging to create visual image of the brain for diagnostic purposes

    (ech/o: sound; encephal/o: brain)

    Diagnostic Procedures of Nervous System


    Recording electrical activity of the brain through the use of electrodes attached to the scalp

    (electr/o: electric)


    Radiographic study of the spinal cord

    Requires contrast medium through lumbar puncture

    (myel/o: spinal cord)

    Diagnostic Procedures of Nervous System


    Uses electrodes taped to skin to measure transfer of electrical signals in peripheral nerves to muscles

    Lumbar puncture

    Insertion of needle into subarachnoid space of lumbar region to withdraw specimen of cerebrospinal fluid

    Treatment Procedures of Nervous System

    Sedative and hypnotic medications


    Depresses CNS; produces sleep


    Prevents seizures


    Class of drugs producing calming or depressed effect on CNS

    Treatment Procedures of Nervous System


    Depresses CNS to produce calm and diminished responsiveness

    Does not induce sleep


    Absence of normal sensation, especially sensitivity to pain


    (an-: without; esthet: feeling; -ic: pertaining to)

    Induces anesthesia

    May be topical, local, regional, or general

    Epidural anesthesia

    Regional anesthesia produced by injecting medication into the epidural space of lumbar or sacral region of the spine


    Spinal anesthesia

    Regional anesthesia produced by injecting medication into the subarachnoid space

    Provides numbness from toes to waist or lower chest

    Patient remains conscious


    Deep brain stimulation

    Neurosurgical procedure for the treatment of dystonia, tremors, and Parkinson’s disease

    Gamma knife surgery

    Radiation treatment for brain tumors

    Uses gamma radiation to destroy diseased tissue


    Electroconvulsive therapy

    Small amounts of electric current are passed through brain, triggering brief seizure in an attempt to reverse the symptoms of certain mental illnesses


    Surgical removal of portion of the brain

    Treats brain cancer or seizure disorders that are not controlled with medication



    Surgical incision into thalamus

    (thalam: thalamus; -otomy: surgical incision)

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Brief powerful electromagnetic pulses to alter electrical pathways in the brain



    (neur/o: nerve; -plasty: surgical repair)

    Surgical repair of nerves

    Neurorrhaphy (-rrhaphy: surgical suturing)

    Surgically suturing together ends of a severed nerve

    Neurotomy (-otomy: surgical incision)

    Surgical division/dissection of nerve

    Mental Health

    Disorders may include congenital abnormalities, physical changes, substance abuse, or medications

    Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM)

    Assists in diagnosing mental disorders

    Anxiety Disorders

    Generalized anxiety disorder

    Chronic, excessive worrying

    Panic disorder

    Fear of panic attacks

    Panic attack

    Sudden experience of fear even in the absence of danger

    Anxiety Disorders

    Post traumatic stress disorder

    Develops after event involving actual or threatened death or injury to individual or someone else during which the person felt fear, helplessness, or horrified

    (post-: after; trauma: injury; -tic: pertaining to)



    Excessive fear of heights

    (acr/o: top; -phobia: abnormal fear)


    Excessive fear of environments outside the home

    (agor/a: marketplace)



    Abnormal fear of small, enclosed spaces

    (claustr/o: barrier)

    Social anxiety disorder

    Excessive fear of social situations where person feels negative evaluation by others or fears embarrassing himself in front of others

    Obsessive–Compulsive and Related Disorders

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Recurrent obsessions (repetitive, distressing thoughts) and/or compulsions (repeatedly feeling compelled to do things)

    Hoarding disorder

    Over accumulation of belongings in a way that interferes with daily living

    Can create unsafe/unsanitary living conditions

    Nondevelopmental Disorders

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Short attention span and impulsive behavior inappropriate for developmental age


    Substandard reading achievement due to inability of the brain to process symbols

    Nondevelopmental Disorders

    Learning disabilities

    Children of normal intelligence having difficulty learning specific skills

    Intellectual disability

    Significant below-average intellectual and adaptive functioning present from birth or early infancy

    Nondevelopmental Disorders

    Autistic spectrum disorder

    Child has difficulty of developing normal social relationships and communication skills

    Dissociative Disorders

    Dissociative identity disorder

    Presence of two or more distinct personalities, each with its own characteristics within the same individual

    Disruptive and Impulse Control Disorders

    Failure to resist impulse despite potential negative consequences

    Kleptomania (-mania: madness)

    Repeated stealing


    Repeated arson

    Oppositional defiant disorder

    Disruptive behavior toward authority figures

    Bipolar and Depressive Disorders

    Bipolar disorder

    Cycles of severe mood changes shifting from highs to severe lows

    Manic behavior

    Elevated mood with increased irritability, insomnia, poor judgment, and inappropriate social behavior

    Bipolar and Depressive Disorders


    Lethargy and sadness with the loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities

    Persistent depressive disorder

    Low-grade chronic depression present on the majority of days for two or more years

    Seasonal affective disorder

    Depression associated with winter months

    Eating Disorders

    Anorexia nervosa

    Voluntary starvation and excessive exercising related to false perception of body appearance

    Bulemia nervosa

    Frequent episodes of binge eating followed by self-induced vomiting, excessive exercising, misuse of laxatives

    Personality Disorders

    Antisocial personality disorder

    Disregard for the rights of others

    Borderline personality disorder

    Impulsive actions, mood instability, and chaotic relationships

    Narcissistic personality disorder

    Preoccupation with self and lack of empathy for others

    Psychotic Disorders

    Catatonic behavior

    Lack of responsiveness, stupor, and tendency to remain in a fixed posture


    False personal belief


    Sensory perception experienced in the absence of external stimulation

    Psychotic Disorders


    Withdrawal from reality, with illogical patterns of thinking, delusions, and hallucinations

    May be accompanied by other emotional, behavioral, or intellectual disturbances

    Somatic Symptom Disorders

    Physical complaints or concerns about one’s body that are out of proportion to physical findings or disease

    Factitious disorder

    Person acts as if he/she has physical or mental illness although not really sick

    Somatic Symptom Disorders

    Conversion disorder

    Temporary or ongoing changes in function triggered by psychological factors


    Intentional creation of false or exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms motivated by incentive such as avoiding work

    Substance Related Disorders

    Substance abuse

    Addictive use of tobacco, alcohol, medications, or illegal drugs


    Chronic alcohol dependence

    Delirium tremens

    Sudden, severe mental changes or seizures caused by abrupt withdrawal of alcohol

    Substance Related Disorders

    Drug abuse

    Excessive use of illegal or recreational drugs, or misuse of prescription drugs

    Drug overdose

    Accidental or intentional use of illegal drug or prescription medication in amount higher than the safe or normal

    Gender Identity

    Gender dysphoria

    Person identifies himself/herself opposite to his/her biological sex

    Medications to Treat Mental Disorders

    Psychotropic drug

    Acts primarily on CNS by producing temporary changes affecting mind, emotions, and behavior

    (psych/o: mind; -tropic: having an affinity for)


    Prevents or relieves depression

    Medications to Treat Mental Disorders

    Antipsychotic drug

    Treats symptoms of severe disorders of thinking and mood associated with neurological and psychiatric illness

    (anti-: against; psych/o: mind; -tic: pertaining to)

    Anxiolytic drug

    Temporarily relieves anxiety and reduces tension

    (anxi/o: anxiety; -lytic: to destroy)

    Medications to Treat Mental Disorders

    Mood-stabilizing drugs

    Treat mood instability and bipolar disorders


    Increases activity in certain areas of brain to increase concentration and wakefulness

    Overuse can cause sleeplessness and palpitations

    Psychological Therapies to Treat Mental Disorders


    Determination of mental disorders stemming from childhood; gaining insight into one’s feelings/behavior

    Behavioral therapy

    Focuses on changing behavior by identifying problem behaviors, and using reward if appropriate behaviors are performed

    Psychological Therapies to Treat Mental Disorders

    Cognitive behavioral therapy

    Focuses on changing thoughts that affect person’s emotions and actions

    Attempts to change problematic beliefs


    Producing altered state of focused attention by use of hypnosis, making person to be more willing to believe and to act on suggestions. The Case of the Man with the Weak Arm

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