NURS 3002 Assignment: Supplementary Assessment System

NURS 3002 Assignment: Supplementary Assessment System

NURS 3002 Assignment: Supplementary Assessment System


Part 1

Discuss two decision making theories you have covered in your tutorials for this topic. What are the identifying features of the theories? How do they develop in nurses? When would you chose to use one theory over another? What are the strengths and limitations of these theories? You must support with relevant, current literature and demonstrate a link to nursing throughout.

Part 2

Outline this patient in no more than 250 words to provide the clinical context for the rest of the paper. Ensure you deidentify the patient and do not use their real name. Discuss their reason for admission and their care needs. Provide relevant medical and social history as required to provide context.

Discuss three issues the patient was facing at the time you cared for them. These need to be issues that you were involved in assessing and managing while on PEP. Be explicit in detailing your role. Discuss why these were issues for this patient, how do they relate to this admission? How did you assess them? Link this to the decision-making theory you used and the clinical reasoning you undertook when assessing this patient.

Discuss how you addressed each of these issues in terms of nursing management and providing care. Again, you need to support with evidence-based literature to support your therapeutic interventions. You need to identify which decision-making theory you used here and how you moved through clinical reasoning to manage the care of this patient.


NURS 3002 Assignment: Supplementary Assessment System

Sample Solution to Part A

Information processing theory

The information processing theory reflects that the human mind acts like an information processor in comparison to the notions of behaviourists to the people merely respond to the stimuli. The information processing model focuses on the information that is expanded through various ways (Butler, Guiso and Jappelli 2014). This in turn is involved in affecting the ability of the individuals to access the information later. It also reflects the degree to which the information was extended upon and the way that how the information will be learned. Another study was involved in broadening the depicted idea by adding more information that could be easily retrieved if the way of accessing is similar to the way that the information was stored. Studies showed that the general model of information processing theory involves majorly there components. This includes the sensory memory, the working memory or the short term memory and finally the long term memory (Reyna 2013).

While considering the sensory memory, it has been perceived that the information during this is gathered through the senses by a process known as transduction. There is a receptor cell activity present where the information is altered to a form that the brain is able to process. These are the memories that exist for a short amount of time. In terms of short term memory, there are various cognitive functions that affects this memory where the individuals have cognitive load and the information that has been repeated for a number of times does not require intellectual capacity. In long term memory, there are various types of information that is involved like declarative (semantic and episodic), procedural (how to do something), and imagery (mental images). In contrast to the previous memory constructs, long term memory has unlimited space (Trevithick 2014).

De Neys and Osman (2013) suggests that intuitive theory comprises of an ontology of concepts along with a system of laws that are involved in governing the various concepts that interrelate. This theory includes a structure that is coherent in nature and which expresses how a part of the theory is able to influence the other parts of the theory. A major characteristic of this intuitive theory is that they are simply not involved in describing the incident that has happened but also involved in interpreting the evidences through the use of the vocabulary of the theory. The implication of the intuitive theory reflects that it is good in terms of the probabilistic and the generative models that allows the various cognitive skill set to define these programs of the model. The theory of intuition supports prediction in addition to supporting of inference along with explanation.

While using the information processing theory, the information is being accessed from long-term memory along with cue assessment. This information is then transformed into parts which can be cognitively manipulated by the short-term memory. Therefore this theoretical approach maintains that there are certain drawbacks to the amount of information which a person can process given at a specific time in addition to the efficient problem solving that helps to the mentioned limits. While in nursing, this theory of information processing has been used with verbal long thinking-aloud, comprising of the protocols to study process of cognition implemented in clinical decision making (Butts and Rich, 2013). In order maintain the tendency of information-processing models to be overly linear and mechanistic, steps have taken to address implement addition of heuristics along with the contextual variables and also varying degrees of task complexity in addition to the varying levels of uncertainty (Hershberger et al. 2013).

The theory of Information processing is able to provide a theoretical match in terms of the dynamic environments and the ambiguity of decisions in clinical practice.  It is required to rely on analytical decision to make a more structured process for the identification of options along with the expected outcomes. The process of the assigning of the values to the outcomes along with the determination of the estimated relationships which are thought to exist between the options in addition to the anticipated outcomes. Formal or the informal models are used to bring about the systematize decision making by using decision trees in addition to the grids or decision flow diagrams (Holstein and Gubrium, 2013). It has been reported that the decision analysis can be made useful for evaluation of the options related to medical treatment in association to the cost analysis, quality improvement decisions, sensitivity analysis and the policy decisions (Trevithick 2014).

A brief definition of intuition reflects that it is involved in the immediate apprehension while there is absence of reasoning. Looking from a more technical point of view, it can be argued that intuition might be seen as the contrastive of reasoning which in turn corresponds roughly to the distinction between the two types like Type 1 that is intuitive and Type 2 that is reflective processes that is contemporary to the information and the intuitive process theories of thinking (Rodriguez, Smith and Silvia, 2016). However unlike reasoning, the idea of intuition reflects low effort which does not compete for resources of central working memory. It also provides the default responses which might or often might not be intervened upon with a high effort along with the reflective reasoning. Therefore it can be mentioned that intuition has in turn been blamed for the cognitive biases that exists in the psychological literatures in relation to reasoning along with decision making.

The information processing theory helps the nurses to provide sufficient details about the components of the process for responding to the patients. This theory develops from social psychology and it involves the concepts that are required to be applied by the nurses in order to respond to the social cues received from the patient which involves examples like response generation. This theory have an applicability in relation to how the nurses should act out their professional roles and learn the developmental skills. A study conducted by Shaban (2015), showed that the nurses who are more experienced or has at least five years of experience can act as a preceptor. In contrast a non-expert nurse does not have a role as charge nurse or preceptor.