BIOH12008 Assignment: Human Pathophysiology

BIOH12008 Assignment: Human Pathophysiology

BIOH12008 Assignment: Human Pathophysiology


Describe what you learnt from pamphlet The causes of acnes include anxiety and stress. I also learnt about the signs and symptoms. The modes of treatment of acne are many and each one has a distinct mode of action against the causative factors of acne development

What is difficult The difference between the whitehead and blackhead has been difficult to understand. The explanation of the treatment methods

How did the pamphlet help you to understand acnes The simple illustration assists one to know the causes of the disease. An individual can state the symptoms of the complications from the pamphlet

How did the pamphlet help you understand the disease?

Sample Draft Solution:


Word count: Acne is a condition of the skin that is chronic and leads to the development of inflammatory lesions on the surface (Guzman, Choi, & James, 2018). The condition develops when the hair follicles are plugged with dead skin cells and oil. Acne often leads to whiteheads, and blackheads, and are found to be appearing on the upper back, shoulders, chest and forehead. The signs and symptoms of acne might be varying depending on the severity of the condition that an individual develops. Apart from the symptoms mentioned above, some other symptoms are small, red, tender bumps known as papules, and pimples which are papules with pus at the tips. In addition, individuals are prone to develop nodules which are solid and large lump beneath the skin’s surface. Cyctic lesions might also develop that re painful and pus-filled lumps beneath the skin’s surface.

Sample Disclaimer

The disease is predominant in individuals below the age of thirty. The most affected gender is women; however, anybody can contact the disease (Harris, & Cooper, 2017). Suffering from acne has a negative impact on the quality of life of individuals in relation to different life aspects. The condition might be having a negative impact on the social relationships of the individual. The appearance of the pimples on the face can make an individual lose confidence. Most individuals face awkwardness in the public or in a social gathering. Therefore, the affected individuals find difficulties in interacting with others. The diagnosis is through observation of the skin.

The risk factors for development of acne are multiple. Acne develops as a result of increased secretion of androgen in the body. The hormone triggers the growth of oil glands beneath the epidermal layer of the skin (Danby, 2015). Medications that have lithium and androgen also cause the development of pimples. Additionally, cosmetics that are oily and contain grease leads to acne on the face. Menstruation and stress also trigger the formation of blisters on the chest. Acne development can also be due to genetics as an individual can inherit the condition from the parents. The changes in climatic conditions can also lead to the occurrence of the disease. Furthermore, squeezing of pimples also causes acne.

There are a variety of medications that cure or clear acne from the skin. Resorcinol and Salicylic acid are examples of medical remedies against pimples.  Resorcinol assists in the removal of both the white and blackheads (Thiboutot et al., 2018). Apart from the two drugs, Azelaic acid and Benzoyl peroxide are also remedies to the lesions. Azelaic acid reinforces the cellular lining of the hair follicles. Moreover, the acid prevents the eruption of sebum and inhibits the growth of bacteria. Benzoyl peroxide eliminates bacteria hence accelerating skin replacement.

Injection of corticosteroid drugs also helps in the treatment and management of the skin lesions. The infusion is necessary if the cyst erupts leading to the development of painful lump. The physician must dilute the corticosteroid to enhance its level of effectiveness (Zaenglein et al., 2016). Furthermore, corticosteroids minimise the chances of an individual to develop inflammation. Corticosteroids also enable the affected individual to undergo a fast process of healing and recovery from acne. The lumps and the heads break down after three days from the time of injection.

Physicians can prescribe antibiotics for patients who are allergic to injections. The drugs have an effective action for individuals with chronic acne infection (Verkaik, Schurink, & Melles, 2018). The patient should take the medication for six months to reduce the causative agents of the disease. Furthermore, the affected individuals should take high amounts of antibiotics at the beginning of treatment. However, the patient should reduce the uptake of the drug as the acne decrease. The shortcoming of the medicines is the ability of the causative agents of the disease to develop resistance towards them.

Word count: The interviewees agree that the pamphlet is informative and they have responded positively to it. A distinct understanding has been gained regarding the extent to which the pamphlet has been successful in imparting information on acne. The individuals have gained increased information about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment methods regarding the condition. The causes include stress and anxiety among others. The symptoms include the development of white and blackheads, pimples with pus and lesions. More symptoms are the appearance of cysts and the painful lumps on the areas that are affected by acne. The diagnosis is through the identification of the signs that are the common characteristic of acne. The treatment can be through injection of corticosteroids that helps in reduction of inflammation and augments healing. Additionally, the physicians can recommend the intake of antibiotics that help in inhibiting the growth of bacteria on the site of acne (Sinnott, Bhate, Margolis, & Langan, 2016). Therefore, the medical pamphlet impacts knowledge about acne to the audience. The information that has been presented is structured in a logical manner.

Some interviewees did not find difficulty in understanding any detail in the pamphlet. However, others found minimal problems when navigating the document. Some interviewees faced difficulties in understanding the differences between blackheads and whiteheads which are cores signs of acne. Moreover, certain individuals did not know the difference between cysts and the whiteheads. The difference between pimples and cysts were also difficult to be understood.

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