PSY 612 Assignment: Work and Well-Being
PSY 612 Assignment: Work and Well-Being
PSY 612 Assignment: Work and Well-Being – Sample Draft Solution:
Outline of the structure:
Stress can be defined as a reaction that human body demands in a particular situation or in certain circumstances. In a specific term, when the reaction is caused, it makes the nervous system to produce hormones that cause fast heartbeat, short and quick breathing and tightening muscles followed by a burst of energy. Stress management is a process that is used to control a person’s stress through different approaches. Stress management is important as chronic stress can have a massive negative impact on body and mind. Over-stressing can contribute to health problems on individual such as headaches, anxiety and depression. In the long term, the following impacts can lead to serious and acute health diseases such as memory loss and heart disease. The present study discusses the concept of stress management and related concepts. This study emphasizes the impact of stress on organizational behaviour and the methods that can be adopted by the organizations to overcome the problem. The present study also discusses various the methods in details to reach the depth of the problem.
Statement of the issue
Stress is a universal experience and it grew rapidly in the workplaces which have made stress management an absolute essential for organizations to consider. The study examines the main reasons that cause stress to the employees in an organization. Employees are faced with various causes of stress in the daily life such as workload, financial issues and many more. Also, the study discusses the ways an organization can help their employees to deal with stress and do successful stress management.
Description of the key population:
The workplace is an area acting as a major source of stress. There are key factors acting as an agent of stress such as complex tasks, lack of breaks, poor physical work condition, long working hour and many more varying as per designation. The focus of the study is on the population who faces difficulty in managing stress and impacted negatively. The population son facing stress become less productive and unhappy in the workplace is the main focus of the study.
Definition of key constructs
The theories of stress management are that have been used in this study are-
Model of Stress
- a) Potential source of stress: environment has the capability to influence the design of an organization’s structure and also the capacity to influence the level of stress among the employees. People began to fear when the economy starts contracting. Political uncertainties such as stability of a government or change in political power can contribute in stress level. People tend to feel the stress in situations that are highly affected by the environmental factors.
- b) Organizational factors: Often the reason causing stress in an organization can be poor organizational factors such as when employees are pressurized for not committing errors, meeting deadline, overload of work and more. To a person’s job task demand is related relatively including the design of the individual’s job, working conditions and physical work layout.
Role demand is another cause of stress where the employees are expected to perform certain roles as per their job profile. Job role can have significant impact on employees making them stress over their performance. Role conflict occurs making expectations of roles that can be hard to meet for the employees. Role overload is experienced by employees when they are expected to perform more within the limited time.
Interpersonal demands are the pressures that are created by other employees of the workplace. Employees can have positive and negative impact on each other. Often lack of support from colleagues is considered to impose stress on employees.
- c) Personal factors: personal factors are the personal financial problems, family issues and natural traits that cause stress to one. Often the company’s rules and regulation can make employees lose family time and such related issues.
- d) Individual differences: people vary according to the personality trait. Few people are able to thrive in a stressful situation and few people fail to tackle the stress. Every person’s ability to tackle stress differs depending on various psychological and physical factors. The relevant moderator considers variable including job experience, perception, social support, self-efficiency and belief in the locus. People who are more experienced tend to be more adapted to stress as they have developed the coping mechanism for dealing with stress by remaining for a long time in the organization. Employees are found to be performing according to their perception of reality and not the actual reality. Hence, there is a direct relationship between the way an employee react and the stress it experiences. PSY 612 Assignment: Work and Well-Being
Social support help in combating stress by motivation, emotional and mental support. People having moral support find it easier to deal with stress whereas people not finding any oral support find it hard to deal with stress as the person lacks in finding emotional and moral support. The situation for the employees become harder when there are added problem in the personal and social life.
Presence of locus of control internally is an indicator of positive care. People who think of themselves as the controller of their life instead of the environment as the controller of their life tend to be more positive towards life. People lacking internal locus of control find it hard to tackle stress due to their belief that negative things are destined for them.
Self-efficiency is also considered as a major influence on people’s stress. People who possess strong self-efficiency give less negative reaction than the people having a low level of self-efficiency. Self-belief is the key factor of self-efficiency and internal locus of centre.
Consequences of stress
The consequences of stress can take various forms. Stress can manifest itself in many ways in a person involving physical, psychological and behavioral changes. The consequences are listed under the three categories.
- Psychological symptoms: Stress can often be the reason for dissatisfaction in life and job. Due to a high level of stress, a person fails to concentrate. This divided attention does not allow a person to provide full productivity. Summing up all the situations and negative perception due to stress shows in psychological states such as anxiety, tension, boredom, procrastination and more. People in a job where the job role is not specified and demands multiple responsibilities stresses people more often. A job declaring clarity in job role is taken to be a better job where the employees are there is clarity of the job role.
- Physiological symptoms: stress can have a direct impact on the physiological state of a person. An excess amount of stress can lead to loss of appetite, metabolism, change in breathing rate, increase in heart rate, frequent headaches and induce heart attacks. Although the relation between particular psychological symptoms and stress is not clear there are predictable physiological symptoms that can result from the excess amount of stress.
- Behavioral symptoms: impact of behaviour due to stress is evident when the there is a psychological impact. People who are faced with the increased amount of stress can have changes in their behaviour pattern such as irregular eating habits, increase in smoking and alcohol consumption, sleeping disorder and much more. Only the low and moderate level of stress can be helpful in the performance of task as it stimulates the body and increases the ability to react. However, an excessive amount of stress can have opposite outcomes resulting in poor performance of employees.
Method and design of intervention
Methods of managing stress in an organization can be challenging at the same time absolute important. The methods can be structured as per the organization’s structure however, a general methods of managing stress can be performed in two approaches: 1) Individual approaches and 2) Organizational approaches.
Individual level approach: high level of stress can have direct affect which also affected aspects related to the person such as family and organization or workplace. Therefore, to overcome the negative consequences of stress required amount of stress should be given. Methods of stress management are required for helping individual cope with the organization’s demand and expectations. The individual approaches of stress management include:
- Time management: time management helps working efficiently by finding times that are often lost without noticing. People suffer from stress when they fail to finish work on time and meet deadline. Therefore, time management is an effective way relieving from stress.
- Physical exercise: exercise and physical activities helps in reducing stress. When a body does any kind of physical exercise, it forms endorphins, a type of chemical that acts as a natural painkiller for the brain.
- Training on relaxation: overcoming the impact of stress is possible by relaxation. The relaxation can be the simple relaxation or it can be deep breathing or meditation.
- Social support: it is observed that positive social support helps dealing with critical situation or tough times through the help of friends and families. Sharing the reasons and causes of stress with supportive people who are good listeners help through motivation.
- Cognitive therapy: there are several cognitive therapy techniques have been developed by the psychologists due to the growing rate of people suffering from stress. PSY 612 Assignment: Work and Well-Being
Organizational level approach: the approaches that are more pro-active in nature and try to remove the existing stressors are the organizational approaches. Also, the aim of the approach is also to prevent any sort of stress that may cause to individual job holders. The organizational approaches include:
- Organizational role clarity: people feel stressed when they are faced with confusion in a particular job role. The reason for the confusion can be ambiguity in the role or conflict in the role. By offering a clear perception of the job role and the expected role from the job can prevent the employees from going through stress.
- Setting realistic goal: an organization should be able to analyze its internal and external factors before setting the goals. Setting the right and realistic goals that are possible as per the market situation helps in relieving stress. Employees are often frightened by the impractical goals set by the employers of the organization
- Increase in involvement with employees: involving employers for important decisions and meeting help in establishing confident in the employees. Therefore, involment of employees will create stress relieved environment in the workplace.
- Supportive climate in the organization: by providing suitable and supportive climate where employees can …