NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay

NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay

Nursing is a highly responsible job that has to be performed by well-qualified professionals. Nurses should come prepare to adapt their lifestyle and set of values, which they have to carry out throughout their career in nursing, because nurses should respect basic ethical norms and standards and provide nursing care services of the high quality for all patients. Nursing care has a considerable impact on the life and health of patients. This is why nurses are responsible for effects and outcomes of their performance. In this regard, my choice of nursing is grounded on my personal philosophy, which helps to cope with challenges, which any nurse encounters in the course of the professional development and during the regular work on the daily basis. At any rate, I come prepared to confront possible challenges to reach my personal goals, which I have set and which I am eager to meet in the course of my career as a nurse. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.


In fact, when I was choosing my future career, I had several options among which I had chosen nursing because I believed this career matched my internal inclinations and my skills. At any rate, I always felt a great respect in relation to nurses because I am conscious of the fact that the job of nurses is important and hard. In this regard, I can refer to my personal experience, since my mother worked as a nurse for a long time. Since my childhood, I have grown up being aware of how responsible the work of a nurse is. In fact, there is no margin for error in the work of a nurse.

However, it is not because of challenges that I have chosen nursing. Along with the influence of my mother’s experience, which inspired me to focus on the career in the field of nursing, there were personal concerns. In fact, I believe nursing to be prospective in terms of my future career development. In a long run, I expect to take a position in the senior nursing staff and to make a successful career in the field of health care services, although I have a long way to go to reach my goals. Nevertheless, I am ready to work hard to reach my professional goals. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

In fact, nursing is as challenging as it is important. However, the role of nursing in the life of the society and each individual can hardly be underestimated, because it is nurses, who are in the forefront of the treatment of patients with different health problems. Nurses spent more time with patients than any other health care professional (Burge & Sullivan, 2008). This is why they bear the high ethical responsibility for patients. Nurses should respect ethical norms and standards, which are established in their health care organization. They should respect ethical norms and values of their patients. In this regard, the respect to the patient confidentiality and privacy should be among primary concerns of nurses. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

Historically, nurses performed the role of assistants to doctors. However, today, the role of nurses changes, since they play more and more significant part in the provision of patients with health care services (Flood, 2009). They spend more time with patients than doctors do, while they enhance their professional skills and knowledge. In fact, today, nurses can perform complex tasks and functions, which used to be performed by doctors in the past. The overall progress of technology opens new opportunities for nurses to provide health care services of the higher quality.

At the same time, nursing faces some political issues. Current policies in relation to nurses are often unfair, if not to say discriminatory. For instance, nursing is still viewed as a female job that limits opportunities for men to enter this profession. On the other hand, nurses have substantial difficulties, while overcoming professional and gender barriers, if they want to become doctors (Craven & Hirnle, 2009). Their nursing background is often perceived by doctors rather as a drawback than as an advantage, because they believe nurses have lower qualification compared to them. In such a situation, even if nurses undergo extensive professional training, they cannot always get the position of a doctor. Therefore, current policies in relation to nursing need considerable changes to become fair and tolerant.

At the same time, nurses should also perform their functions responsibly. To put it more precisely, the primary concern of nurses should be the health and well-being of patients. In actuality, this means that nurses should not just provide patients with essential nursing care services but they should also be able to assess and understand needs of their patients. They should be able to help patients to tackle not only their physical health problems but also their psychological problems. The patient-centered approach should be the priority for nurses. Otherwise, patients will not receive nursing care services of the high quality and their health and, in the most severe cases, their life may be under a threat (Meehan, 2009). In such cases, nurses should be aware of their legal responsibility for patients health. They should not admit cases of professional negligence, which may have disastrous effects for patients. Instead, they should take care of patients and pay them as much attention as they can. In this regard, nurses should be able to provide counseling services for their patients. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

However, to provide nursing care services of the high quality, nurses should also pay attention to family members of their patients. In fact, the family support is very important for patients to recover faster and to improve their physical and especially psychological condition. Psychological and physical conditions of patients are closely intertwined. If a patient has psychological problems, his/her recovery will last longer. In such a situation, the family support may be very helpful and nurses should assist family members and patients to facilitate their communication and interaction. Often nurses should communicate to family members the current condition of patients, which may dangerous for patients life. In such a situation, nurses should be very careful and avoid traumatizing psychologically relatives of patients. They should be able to communicate effectively and respect ethical norms and standards of patients family members.

Furthermore, nurses should be also able to interact with each other and health care professionals. In fact, they should be as a family, where each staff member supports another. Through such interaction and teamwork, nurses can reach positive outcomes in their performance as well as they can help doctors to maximize the effectiveness of their performance too. The positive ambiance and health organizational culture based on positive relations between nurses and other health care professionals increases the effectiveness of the organizational performance and helps health care organizations to provide health care services effectively. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

However, nurses should take care not only of the health of patients but they should also pay a lot of attention to their own health. For instance, I try to lead an active lifestyle and practice sport. In such a way, I maintain my body in a good physical shape and I can say that I am a healthy person that is very important for a nurse because nurses are always exposed to a risk of contracting an infectious disease. The healthy nursing staff is more resistant to infections (Mages, 2009). Therefore, if nurses are healthy, they will perform effectively because they will not need to take leave because of their own health problems.

At the moment, I have a short-run plan for the next two years. I expect to become a professional nurse and to practice basic skills and apply my knowledge in the field of nursing, which I have acquired during my learning. By the end of two years, I expect to perform as well as my colleagues do.

By the end of a five year term, I expect to take a senior position in the nursing staff. Such progress is essential for my further career development. During this time, I have to keep learning and conducting scientific researches in the field of my interest. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

In ten years, I expect to keep working in the senior nursing staff and help my colleagues to enhance their professional skills and abilities. At the same time, I am eager to do some volunteer job. This is why I plan to participate in a volunteer project providing nursing care services for those in need in ten years from now on.

NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay

The achievement of my professional goals will depend on my ability to realize my full potential. At the moment, I have strengths, which can help me to reach my goals. To put it more precisely, I am success-oriented and I am interested in nursing. This is why my motivation is high and I am still eager to learn and work hard to achieve the goals, which I have set. My professional development is crucial for me because I do want to make a successful career in nursing and health care services. However, my career is not my ultimate goal. What I really want and I believe this is my strength is helping patients to cope with their health problems. It is for the patient’s health and successful treatment that I need to keep progressing, expanding my knowledge and developing my professional skills. In such a way, I will have to work hard to reach my goals.

On the other hand, I understand that, just like any other person, I have certain weaknesses which limit my opportunities and may affect my career development. At the moment, I do not have as much training as I would like to have. I believe this is a problem because extensive training would help me to integrate into my workplace environment faster and to provide patients with health care services of the higher quality. Nevertheless, I expect to continue my training and dedicate myself to nursing. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

Nursing philosophy is quite a complicated and individual concept because it requires integration of many character traits and skills. It’s a mix of principles, beliefs and values that are used in practice.

As for me, nursing philosophy is about integrity, empathy, culturally sensitive care both to patients and their relatives. Though, every patient needs not only care, every patient needs someone who will be a leader, teacher, advocate, provider and manager. This means that a patient needs full-fledged support in all spheres of life in order to recover as fast as possible. Nursing is about understanding on all levels: physical, emotional, scientific and so on. Nursing requires such traits as wish to learn the whole life, readiness to get new experience and being responsible.

When describing my personal nursing philosophy, I am to use three main concepts: person, environment, nursing and health. I’ll try to explain why in this nursing philosophy paper. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

Person in nursing philosophy is obvious because nursing is care about people. Patient is center of nursing. It’s also important to mention that approach to the person should be holistic. This means that nursing is not about curing one single illness, but the whole organism, taking into account all the aspects of patient’s life.

Environment is important because people exist in it and interact with it closely. Nursing is impossible without taking into account the way environment influences us, our families and health.

Health is the next concept of great important. Health is not static; it’s a very dynamic state, which depends on many internal and external factors. It changes from wellness to illness, influenced by environment.

Nursing. The last and the most obvious part of nursing philosophy. Nursing requires empathy and being engaged with a patient right here and right now. I work in a hospital and know that we, nurses, are to pay attention to every feeling and detail around the patient. These things around are significant and a nurse is to know how everything that can be felt, smelt, touched and seen can influence patients condition. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

The philosophy of nursing is a personal perspective and attitude that is part of ones belief about the field of nursing and the purpose of their nursing education and practice.

It is how a person perceives the profession of nursing and the reason behind their actions and participation in the nursing field.


For some nursing is a way to help others achieve better health and save lives through science, physiology and psychology.

This may include nurse educators, emergency room nurses, mental health nurses, neonatal care units and other areas of specialty that are involved in patient health care and mental well-being.

For others nursing carries a deeper spiritual meaning that extends beyond medicine, physiology and psychology.

This may include nurses who practice holistic care and alternative medicine where a patient’s personal beliefs, emotions and religion may play a primary role in the type of care the patient receives..NURS 8110 Philosophy of Nursing Essay

And yet for others nursing may represent a connection to other family members or a heritage where previous generations of family members took part as working nurses.

From this perspective working as a nurse may be a way to show respect for previous generations of nurses within a family of nurses by representing the family’s educational and academic lifestyle, beliefs and choices in a certain light.

This may be particularly true for families that value prestige, accomplishment and family oriented success.

The philosophy of nursing encompasses ones beliefs, attitudes, actions, hopes, dream and desires and drives the ethical behaviors of the individual or group in which the particular philosophy belongs to, therefore the philosophy is a vital component in nursing practice and the well-being of the patients personal health as well as for the mental, emotional and physical health of the nurses to which the philosophy belongs to.

Without a nursing philosophy ones purpose as a nurse may waver lowering the nurses commitment, drive and attitudes towards their profession.

While there is no one philosophy of nursing, because each nurses represents his or her own philosophy in a different way, it is none the less important for a nurse to establish a good basis for their philosophy, beliefs and purpose for their work as a nurse and health care provider.

A philosophy of nursing is a statement, sometimes written, that declares a nurse’s beliefs, values, and ethics regarding their care and treatment of patients while they are in the nursing profession. Although the philosophy may seem solely academic and too cerebral to be of any use, it is vital to approaching your profession in an appropriate manner. When you develop a personal philosophy of nursing, it benefits your career and the lives of the people you provide care to and their families.

NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay

What are your Beliefs about Nursing?

A philosophy of nursing begins by identifying and highlighting the beliefs you feel are important to the profession itself. What makes you a nurse, as opposed to being another profession? Who do you believe a nurse truly is, if such a wide-ranging profession can be described in only one word? What do you believe is the most important part of nursing as both a profession and a lifestyle?

Most nurses work long hours in challenging conditions, and the work can be emotionally draining. Often, mutually reciprocal relationships cannot happen between patients who are focused on their own healing and their medical care providers, who must help in this healing. Your beliefs may be what you have to hang onto when you lose a patient or when a patient makes you happy and then moves on as their health improves.

What are your Theories of Nursing?

Your philosophy of nursing must go beyond the day to day beliefs you carry and conduct yourself with in order to stay centered and effective. Often, there is also a theory element to your philosophy that involves how you see situations in the abstract. When you consider potential ethical dilemmas, how do you respond to them, and what sorts of decisions do you choose to make?

While you may never actually encounter a bizarre medical situation with a difficult decision, your philosophy of nursing is how you will respond when something unexpected does happen. In the medical field, it is best to expect the unexpected. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

Your Philosophy Will Grow as You Grow as a Nurse

The most important aspect of developing your personal philosophy of nursing is that it is a practiced part of your art, and never something that can be “finished.” Your philosophy will begin the day you first think about it and see yourself as a nurse. It will slowly change based on what you practically do on a daily basis in your professional life. Even your personal life will go into molding the type of nurse you are and the philosophy you espouse. With each situation, you will learn and your methodology will change slightly.

NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay

How to Form a Philosophy

Your philosophy is already a part of you, as it is part of your personality. You already see medicine in general in a particular light that is unique to you. Your philosophy has already begun to form even if you have never thought about it. As you go through training and experience what the nursing profession is all about, your career path will further shape the philosophy you carry out. This philosophy will form organically and change in the same way.

You might find it helpful to write your philosophy down. This way you can read over it if you need a reminder of why you got into nursing or what your values are as a nurse. You can also write new ones as you move throughout your nursing career and gain more experience.

Based on the literature, after experiencing the worldviews of theism and naturalism, modern nursing has adopted a kind of postmodern worldview: a pantheistic monism (1). In new nursing theories terms such as soul, energy, source and divine have been used in the three perspectives mentioned above, though with different meanings in each one (2). In the latter, they have found a more personal ontological place, which is related to creating one’s own reality (3). Most recent theories of nursing are affected by the philosophical ideas of existentialism and humanism, and Far East philosophies such as Taoism, Buddhism and Hinduism (14), which are properly matched to the secular modern ideology of the West.

As a result of the attempts to find a unique and distinct identity between other medical disciplines, the definitions of the main nursing concepts in these theories are holistic, subjective and transcendence-based (5). Jean Watson is a theorist in nursing who has persistently disseminated her “Theory of Human Caring” by publishing many articles and books, and providing lectures in professional seminars (6). She critiques the current trend of giving more attention to the expansion of solid and accurate knowledge in nursing through developing more specific theories. She cautions against the risk of ignoring the development of a theoretical basis for the main concepts in nursing, such as caring, which are needed for the humanistic face of the discipline (7). NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

The Human Caring Theory has received attention because of the importance it places on the concept of caring as the essence of nursing (8). This theory has been developed over the past thirty years and is greatly influenced by theories of consciousness, existentialism, cognition sciences, quantum physics, interpersonal psychology, Taoism and feminism (9). The Human Caring Theory gives much importance to the spiritual, rather than the physical, dimension of human beings, and emphasizes the self-transcendence and self-actualization of the nurse in caring experiences. This is what makes this theory different from others that focus only on patients and do not notice spirituality as the preferable aspect (69). In spite of the theorist’s attempts to provide a comprehensive worldview for nurse-patient encounters, there are some critiques on its theoretical philosophy and the definitions for its main concepts.

The definitions of the concepts of person, health and environment are vague since they are abstract terms derived from multiple West and Far East philosophical thoughts (46). Some concepts that are used in the definition of health and need to be briefly explained include: self-healing, harmony of mind, body and soul, and conciseness-transcendence (10). The concept of environment is defined as the internal and external factors effecting a person (8), which creates the need to answer questions about the existence of the world without considering the human factor. The indirect effects of global issues such as ethnic wars, terrorism and the ecological problems on every human being living in the world are ignored in this subject-based point of view. Affected by the thoughts of existentialism and humanism, the concepts of human being, nature, transcendence and even that energy-giving source (whether it is referred to as God, the divine power, or a similar title) are defined based on human-centrality. An evaluation of the current worldviews shows the need to seek another perspective on nursing, which may still be unknown in nursing literature. One possible perspective that has not been explored in nursing literature may be Persian mysticism. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay

Mysticism is to reach the truth through intuition, revelation and alliance, which is an old creed in many cultures and nations (11). Despite some differences in the forms and manners, all types of mysticism have common points (12). According to Henry Corbin, an Islamist researcher (1978 – 1903), the non-secular Persian mysticism has a rich and comprehensive theoretical basis that is notable in the modern world (13). Alive, dynamic, and tremendously affected by Islam, Persian mysticism covers a range of worldwide themes and has the potential to be matched with many human science theories (14). Most nursing theories borrow their theoretical basis from other disciplines, and many nursing concepts are well conceptualized in Persian mysticism.

To see the nursing concepts from a celestial mystical perspective is a new approach that can be used for the development of nursing grand theories. Any new approach in nursing should provide clear and precise definitions for the four nursing concepts of person (human being), environment, health and nursing. Jean Watson’s theory has a mystical nature; moreover, it is important to see things in the light of a recent and frequently studied theory. The aim of this study was to comparatively explain the concepts of person, health and environment in the Human Caring Theory and Persian mysticism. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

Before I describe my philosophy of nursing, I need to define the term “nursing philosophy”. A basic definition offered by a dictionary, suggests that philosophy is the critical study of the basic principles and concepts of a particular branch of knowledge, especially with a view to improving or reconstituting them. (Philosophy, 2011) I agree with Edwards, who writes that “philosophy is an attitude towards life and reality that evolves from each nurse’s beliefs”. (Edwards, 1997) My own interpretation of nursing philosophy arises from education, experience of working in health care and personal beliefs. Nursing philosophy in my understanding is a model that guides my thinking about observations and interpretations of events that occur due to interaction of four components of everyday nursing practice: nursing, patient, health, and environment.

For me, a profession, a vocation, art, and science coalesce to become nursing. A person must be truly devoted to caring to choose nursing as a career. A profession then matures into a vocation, a lifestyle, essence of life. A novice nurse launches her career after proving to the society that scientific knowledge obtained during college years are in compliance with the standards proposed by the board of registration. Applying knowledge gained in systematic study signifies nursing as science. On the other hand, being an accomplished nurse is not limited to being educated and experienced. When I think of a good nurse, I picture someone who mastered the art of caring. Each nurse develops her own style of caring, adjusting it to changing personalities and situations in her own distinct way.

The second component of nursing practice is a patient, a recipient of nursing care, although nursing care is not limited to the patient alone. Families, patients support systems, other health care workers, as well as community comprise a domain of recipients of care, because they are influenced by it in direct and indirect, negative or positive way. In my opinion, the recipient of nursing care remains the most important component of the four. I believe in patient-centered care, and that nursing would not come to exist if it were not for the patients. I think that patients physical and emotional environment should be viewed inseparably from the patient because of their constant two-way influences and interactions. I place a special emphasis on the link between caring and culture. Recognizing that cultures have both differences and similarities in ways of perceiving, knowing, and practicing care allows me to communicate with my patients more efficiently, develop a trusting relationship. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

The last component to be addressed is health, which I view as some point on a continuum from wellness to illness. I deem nursing care to aid individuals in achieving their optimal level of wellness. In the effort to accomplish this goal, the nurses must consider the patient himself, as well as opportunities and constraints of the environment..NURS 8110 Philosophy of Nursing Essay

I apply abstract concepts of nursing philosophy in my everyday professional practice. The mission statement of my hospital emphasizes “delivering healthcare services in a personable, convenient, and compassionate manner, with respect for the dignity of patients and their families.” (Mt Auburn Hospital, 2011)  Although patients and situations change from day to day, my philosophy guides me in even the most difficult situations, and I compassionately treat each patient as a respected individual.


Nursing has various definitions depending on every culture and generation from around the world. In my opinion, nursing is defined as a healthcare profession which focuses on the care of people, their families, and communities to achieve an overall goal of relative health and quality of life throughout life. From this worldview I can define the meta paradigm concepts (Person, Environment, Heath, Nursing) of nursing to develop my own philosophy of nursing which, addresses the concerns of nursing, and further it enables me to assess what values I possess that will help achieve that philosophy.

A meta paradigm represents the worldview of a discipline in its broadest perspective. The meta paradigm of nursing has four central concepts which are all interrelated but have different meanings; person, environment, health, and nursing (McEwen, & Wills, 2010). These four central concepts when defined individually encompass many of the concerns of nursing. Person represents an individual’s needs, culture, and behavior. It acknowledges the physical, mental, intellectual, and chemical components as a system within a system on a global scale. As nurses we must view our clients in a holistic manner and understand that a person is more than just a physical human being. We can accomplish this by looking closely at what the client’s needs are and determine if they are being met. The basic needs are food, water, and shelter. A client’s level of comfort should also be taken into consideration. Are they in pain? Do they look anxious? Are they confused? Psychological needs are also important. Clients should feel that they have a say in their healthcare plan and should feel satisfied with their care.

Health is a state of well being, in which, one has the ability to function and take care of themselves independently while free from stress and illness. As nurses we must keep in mind that there are varying degrees of health and we must always be good advocates of health to our clients, our communities, and ourselves. Nurses are continuously learning about latest technology in order to provide the best care for client’s in various degrees of health. Nurses can keep healthy people healthy by sharing their knowledge with the community instructing various groups about health issues, disease prevention, nutrition, and child care. They can help implement prevention programs, arrange immunization clinics, blood pressure checks, and health screenings. If a client is unable take care of themselves independently nurses are trained to assess that client’s needs, prepare a plan based on the clients diagnosis, and make changes to that plan as needed in order to achieve the highest level of health possible for that client.

Environment is a multilayered concept that involves all elements that affect a person physically, mentally, and socially. A person’s environment can be influenced by geologic location, family, and sociology-cultural interactions. As nurses we must be aware of cultural differences when providing care for clients understanding that our perception of what is culturally acceptable may not be acceptable for our client. Ultimately, the healthcare environment is what we provide our client and it’s the nurse’s job to ensure the client is comfortable in that environment. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

Nursing, as I mentioned earlier, in my opinion is defined as a healthcare profession which focuses on the care of people, their families, and communities to achieve an overall goal of relative health and quality of life throughout life. There is science and art in nursing both concepts are equally important to the profession of nursing. The science of nursing relates to healthcare theory’s which are put into practice based on the physical evidence that they are beneficial to health. The art portion involves caring for the best interests of the client. With the knowledge and understanding that each client has different needs. Possessing the ability to assess these needs and determine what type of care or intervention is needed to improve the clients health, person, and environment is the art of nursing.

My personal values are what attracted me to nursing as a profession. Knowing what I value provides me with a way to approach nursing. In addition, these values also provide me with something concrete to “check-in” with when making decisions about a client, administering medications, or providing interventions. I feel the value I admire most in myself is integrity. Integrity to me, in its simplest terms, means doing what is right when no one is looking. As a nurse we are trusted with client’s lives on a daily basis. The task of handling and administering powerful medications is just one role the nurse must perform that demonstrates the importance of integrity. Integrity is the moral fiber of credibility if we allow our integrity to be compromised, as nurses, we put our clients in harm’s way while simultaneously damaging our profession as a whole. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

Empathy places an emphasis on the client’s situation, perspective, and feelings. Incorporating empathy into the nursing practice enables you to understand what the client is going through providing the ability to help them in a therapeutic way. In my own experience in healthcare, I find that many healthcare providers lose sight of the value of empathy over their careers. They stop viewing the patient in the holistic manner of person, health, environment, pain, family and start seeing them as work. It is my opinion, that once you stop seeing the client as a person and start seeing them as work it is time to find a new profession.

Considering how these values articulate with the morals of society is an important factor when providing care for clients. For example, empathy is extremely important when dealing with the elderly because throughout generations, as people grow older, some believe that morals of society have degraded in comparison with the morals of their generation. Your mannerism when dealing with elderly clients may have a direct effect on their respect for you as their healthcare provider which, in turn, has an effect on their environment and health. The ability to use empathy to accept the difference in others increases your ability to provide clients with a higher standard of care in the practice of nursing. In the morals of society integrity correlates with honesty. The foundation of a moral person begins with honesty and while most of us may not consider our society completely honest the act of striving to be an honest person will positively affect our environment and our society. NURS 8110 Assignment: Philosophy of Nursing Essay.

Knowing what to do as a nurse is a process in which all people, not just nurses, learn, to some extent, throughout life. At the very basic level nursing is about caring for someone which is an instinct we learn from our family, our culture, and our life experiences. As professional nurses we take those instincts and develop them into a process which provides care to the client based on a plan with a goal of achieving better health. We understand how to assess a client’s care plan and make necessary changes to achieve the goal of better health by incorporating empirical data, aesthetics, personal experience, and ethics into the practice of nursing.

I understand that once I begin to practice as a nurse my philosophy will change. My current philosophy of nursing is based on my own life experiences up to this point. As a result of defining what values I possess, as well as, my concerns of nursing I have developed what my world view of the paradigmatic concepts of nursing (person, health, environment, and nurse) means to me.