Part 1:
Note: The zscoring method used in the practice data file is covered in Lesson 19 during PSYC 354.
Green & Salkind: Lesson 33, Exercises 1, 3–4
The following helpful tips are numbered to correspond with the exercise number to which they refer (a dash indicates that no tips are needed):
 Though the example in the lesson includes creating a z score variable, this step is not necessary for the homework exercises. (3 pts for output and 3 pts each for a–e) PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
 Write the answer to the last part of this question beneath your graph, in sentence form. (3 pts)
 All homework “Results sections” must follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in Current APA Format” (Note: you do not have to refer to a figure). Note: The statistical statement for a bivariate linear regression must include at least the equation of the line and the confidence interval for the slope (the second row under Confidence Intervals in the output). (3 pts) . PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
Part 2:
 A community psychologist is interested in whether spending time in afterschool programs is predictive of the number of arrests as a young adult in a highrisk neighborhood. After collecting records on 17 individuals over 8 years, the psychologist compiles the information listed in the table below. Conduct a linear regression to analyze the research question.
The steps will be the same as the ones you have been practicing in Part 1 of the assignment—the only difference is that you are now responsible for creating the data file as well. Remember to name and define your variables under the “Variable View,” then return to the “Data View” to enter the data. (3 pts)
Table is shown on the following page. PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
Hours Spent in AfterSchool Programs 
Number of Arrests After Age 17 
3 
2 
41 
1 
68 
1 
29 
0 
7 
5 
12 
4 
121 
0 
54 
1 
19 
3 
134 
0 
106 
1 
67 
1 
25 
3 
73 
1 
38 
4 
110 
0 
31 
3 
 Construct a scatterplot of the relationship between the 2 variables. Plot the regression line on this graph. (3 pts)
 Is time spent in afterschool programs predictive of the number of arrests as a young adult? Write a Results section in current APA style describing the outcome. All homework “Results sections” must follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in Current APA Format” (Note: you do not have to refer to a figure). The statistical statement for a bivariate linear regression must include at least the equation of the line and the confidence interval for the slope (the second row under Confidence Intervals in the output). (3 pts) PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
Part 3: Cumulative Homework
 To investigate the relationship between hours spent studying and exam scores, researchers measured the following. Is there a significant relationship between hours spent studying and scores? Choose the correct test to analyze this question, set up the SPSS file, and run the analysis. Follow the directions under the table on the following page. PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
Hours Spent Studying 
Exam Scores 
1 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 
40 50 51 61 73 71 64 75 68 76 94 85 84 
 Paste appropriate SPSS output. (3 pts)
 Paste appropriate SPSS graph. (3 pts)
 Write a Results section in current APA style describing the outcome. All homework “Results sections” must follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in Current APA Format” (Note: you do not have to refer to a figure). (4 pts)
Submit this assignment by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 6. PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 7 Instructions
Chi Square
Part 1:
Green & Salkind: Lesson 40, Exercises 1–4
The following helpful tips are numbered to correspond with the exercise number to which they refer (a dash indicates that no tips are needed):
 Use the method reviewed in the presentation to weight the cases for this data set. (no points—done in data file)
 Do a, b, and c. (2 pts for output and 2 pts each for a–c)
 ——— (2 pts)
 All homework “Results sections” must follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in Current APA Format” (Note: you do not have to refer to a figure). (2 pts) PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
Green & Salkind: Lesson 41, Exercises 1–3
The following helpful tips are numbered to correspond with the exercise number to which they refer (a dash indicates that no tips are needed):
NOTE: This exercise does not use the weighted cases method. Use the data file “as is.”
 Do a, b, c, d, and e. For letter “e,” this question is asking specifically about effect size. (2 pts for output and 2 pts each for a–e)
 ——— (2 pts)
 All homework “Results sections” must follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in Current APA Format” (Note: you do not have to refer to a figure). (2 pts)
Part 2:
1. An industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologist is helping a company determine the type of work stations preferred by its employees. The business owner believes that people who work in different departments may prefer different work station layouts. In order to examine this claim, the I/O psychologist sets up 3 simulated work stations: private office (PO), semiprivate office (SPO), and open floor plan (OFP). She recruits employees from 3 different departments: Information Technology, Human Resources, and Marketing. The participants spend 30 minutes in each simulated work station performing general prearranged tasks. At the end of the 1.5 hours, the participants turn in a form on which they mark which work station they prefer. The results are listed in the table on the following page. Perform a chi square test of independence (using an SPSS twoway contingency table analysis) to determine whether the proportions of work station preferences differ across departments. Use the weighted cases method.
The steps will be the same as the ones you have been practicing in Part 1 of the assignment—the only difference is that you are now responsible for creating the data file as well. Remember to name and define your variables under the “Variable View,” then return to the “Data View” to enter the data. (2 pts)

Private Office 
SemiPrivate Office 
Open Floor Plan 
TOTAL 
Information Technology 
9 
6 
4 
19 
Human Resources 
6 
10 
3 
19 
Marketing 
7 
3 
9 
19 
TOTAL 
22 
19 
16 
57 
2. Create a clustered bar graph depicting your results. (2 pts)
3. Write an APAstyle Results section describing the outcome. All homework “Results sections” must follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in Current APA Format” (Note: you do not have to refer to a figure). (2 pts)
Part 3: Cumulative Homework
1. A researcher wants to find out if the number of absences from a chemistry class are predictive of final exam scores at a local university. The data from the past term are in the table below. Are number of absences predictive of final exam scores? Choose the correct test to analyze this question, set up the SPSS file, and run the analysis. Follow the directions on the following page. PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
Number of Absences 
Final Exam Scores 
1 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 
98 95 89 89 80 85 80 75 76 69 70 62 60 
 Paste appropriate SPSS output. (2 pts)
 Paste appropriate SPSS graph. (2 pts)
 Write an APAstyle Results section describing the outcome. All homework “Results sections” must follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in Current APA Format” (Note: you do not have to refer to a figure). (2 pts)
Submit this assignment by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 7.
PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 8 Instructions
Part 1
1. MannWhitney U Test
This research scenario will be familiar to you. Do letters a, b, and c, answering the questions beneath your SPSS output. (3 pts for output and 2 pts each for a–c)
Nonparametric Tests
Part 1:
1. Green & Salkind: Lesson 42, Exercises 1, 3–4
The following helpful tips are numbered to correspond with the exercise number to which they refer (a dash indicates that no tips are needed):
1. This research scenario will be familiar to you. Do letters a, b, and c, answering the questions beneath your SPSS output. (3 pts for output and 2 pts each for a–c)
3. All homework “Results sections” must follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in Current APA Format” (Note: you do not have to refer to a figure). (4 pts)
4. Create a boxplot as done in earlier modules/weeks. (3 pts)
2. Spearman Rho Exercise: This exercise is not found in Green & Salkind. Open the data file “Mod8_SpearmanRho_Exercise File” in the Module/Week 8 SPSS Assignments folder in Blackboard and read the following information; answer the questions below.
Scenario: During the Vietnam War, a draft was put in place that selected young men born on certain dates and placed them in the armed services. The process proceeded via lottery: Dates like “Sept. 14” were placed in capsules, one for each of the 365 days of the year, and the capsules were then drawn randomly from a container. In the 1970 draft, Sept. 14 was the first date drawn, meaning that all young men born on Sept. 14 were eligible for the very first round of the draft, and so on. After the results of the 1970 draft were analyzed, many statisticians and politicians asserted that the process had not been random at all, and certain men had a higher chance of being drafted than others. This case is famous, making it to the pages of international newspapers and the U.S. Supreme Court.
In the SPSS data file in Blackboard, you will find the original 1970 draft data with two variables. Column 1 contains the consecutive day of the year (1 = Jan. 1; 2 = Jan. 2; and so on). Column 2 contains the draft rank (1 = first date drawn; 2 = second date drawn; and so on). So, in the first row of the data set, Day 1 (Jan. 1) had a draft rank of 305. The lower the draft rank, the sooner and more likely a man was to be drafted. So, a higher rank (like 305, for example) was preferable to those who did not want to be drafted right away.
If the process had been statistically random, there would be no correlation between the day of the year you were born and the rank that was assigned to you (r = 0). Any type of significant correlation would mean that there was something relating the variables beyond mere random error, or chance.
1. Open the data file and perform a Spearman correlation analysis for the day of year and the draft rank. Paste your output in the homework document. (2 pts)
2. Write a current APAstyle results section describing the outcome. (2 pts)
3. Answer the next two questions in “layman’s terms” as if for someone who does not know much about statistics: (a) Why did people accuse the process of not being random? (b) What do the data indicate for men born earlier in the year vs. men born later in the year? (2 pts) PPSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
It’s not required, but if you want to check out the original New York Times article and see an interesting graph, go to this link:http://frewm.wikispaces.com/file/view/nytimes.pdf
(Data file source: http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v5n2/datasets.starr.html#rosenbaum1)
Part 2:
1. A university assessment department collects data to determine whether university rankings differ based on their regional location. Some rankings are missing because the universities ranked at that level were in different regions than those of interest to the department. Based on eight universities in each of two different regions, is there a difference between university rankings based on their regional locations? Perform a MannWhitney U test, being sure to follow the directions under the table. (3 pts)
West Coast 
East Coast 

2 5 6 12 16 17 18 19 
1 3 4 7 8 10 13 15 

Note: Your file must be set up in the same manner as the example data file and the exercise file from Part 1, with a grouping variable and a dependent/test variable. Because these are rankings, they are ordinal data and must be identified as such in “Variable View” under the column “Measure.” Click in the cell under “Measure” in the row for your university rank variable, and choose “Ordinal.” This ensures that SPSS treats the data at the proper level of measurement.
2. Create a boxplot depicting the results. (3 pts)
3. Write a current APAstyle Results section based on your analyses. All homework “Results sections” must follow the example given in the SPSS tutorials and the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in APA Format” (note: you do not have to refer to a figure). Remember to include a decision about the null hypothesis. (3 pts).
Part 3: Cumulative Homework
1. A political pollster is curious about the effects of a town hall meeting on people’s intentions to support a state proposition that would legalize gambling. He interviews people as they leave and asks them whether their opinion about the proposition has changed as a result of the meeting. He records these frequencies in the table below. Choose the appropriate test to analyze this data, and follow the directions below the table.
Less likely to support
No change
More likely to support
PSYC 355 Exam 1 Liberty University Answers
 The pairedsamples t test has three assumptions, including all but:
 The correct formula for effect size using Cohen’s d for a singlesample t test is:
 A study by Bettmann (2007) published in the Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association assessed whether the attachment relationships between adolescents and their parents change as a result of a residential wilderness treatment experience for the adolescents. Participants completed the Adolescent Attachment Questionnaire at the start and at the end of the wilderness program. Which statistical test would we use to determine whether the wilderness treatment affected attachment relationships?
 For an independentsamples t test, there were 8 participants in Group 1 and 11 participants in Group 2. The total degrees of freedom were:
 The singlesample t test compares a sample mean to a population mean when:
 A clinical researcher was interested in determining whether his interventions were effective in minimizing depression symptoms among his participants. To assess the effectiveness of his treatment program, he administered a depression inventory prior to his treatment and after his treatment. He hypothesized that depression scores would be lower at time two compared to time one. He then compared the mean differences between the two groups and found that his treatment was effective. The dependent variable in this study is:
 When scientists call a hypothesis test conservative, they mean that it is:
 The formula for the degrees of freedom for the singlesample t test is:
 A p level of 0.05 corresponds to a confidence interval of ________%.
 The formula for the research hypothesis for a pairedsamples t test is:
 The appropriate symbolic representation of corrected variance for a sample is:
 The comparison distribution for an independentsamples t test is a distribution of:
 Which of the following statements is true about the assumptions of the independent samples t test?
 The critical cutoffs for a twotailed, pairedsamples t test with seven participants at a p level of 0.01 are:
 Which of the following reports of statistical results are in appropriate APA format? PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
 The critical cutoff(s) for a twotailed, pairedsamples t test with 23 participants at a p level of 0.05 is (are):
 A clinical researcher was interested in determining whether his interventions were effective in minimizing depression symptoms among his participants. To assess the effectiveness of two of his treatment programs, he administered a depression inventory after his treatment for two different groups of clients, each receiving a different treatment. He hypothesized that depression scores would be different between the two groups. The researcher’s hypothesis is:
 The numerator (top portion) of the ratio for calculating all the t statistics contains:
 If the standard deviation for a population, as estimated from a sample, is s = 10.23, then the standard error for a sample size of N = 20 is:
 In an independentsamples t test, how is the research hypothesis symbolized?
 The appropriate hypothesis test to use for a betweengroups design with two groups is a(n):
 In a(n) ________, one sample is compared to a population for which we only know the mean during hypothesis testing. PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
 Which of the following illustrates the APA format for reporting statistically significant results for an independentsamples t test?
 A researcher studies 45 volunteer citizens from a small community and asks them about the amount of caffeine (in milligrams) they ingest before and after lunch each day. The null hypothesis for this pairedsamples study could be:
 A researcher investigates if the extent to which people care about keeping their house clean and neat changes if they are given new things in that home. He follows eight families that were selected to receive home makeovers, assessing their cleanliness before the makeover and after. Given the following confidence interval [–1.26, 0.95], make a decision about the hypotheses.
 Why do we divide by N – 1 rather than by N when estimating a population standard deviation from the sample standard deviation?
 According to the null hypothesis, the mean difference for the comparison distribution in a pairedsamples t test is:
 In a(n) ________, each participant is assigned to only one group in order to compare mean differences.
 Unnithan, Houser, and Fernhall (2006) were interested in whether playing the game Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) affected the heart rate of overweight and nonoverweight adolescents differently. A group of 22 adolescents, 10 classified as overweight and 12 as not overweight, played DDR for 12 minutes, during which time the researchers measured each participant’s heart rate. Which statistical test should the researchers use to analyze their data?
 Twenty people participate in a weightloss program for two months. Their weights after the two months are compared to their starting weights. What kind of mean difference might we expect if the null hypothesis is true for a pairedsamples t test? PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
 A clinical researcher was interested in determining whether his interventions for depression were effective in minimizing depression symptoms among his participants. To assess the effectiveness of his treatment program, he administered a depression inventory prior to his treatment and after his treatment. He hypothesized that depression scores would be lower at time two compared to time one. He then compared the mean of the differences between the two groups to a known standard and found that his treatment was effective. Which statistical test was the researcher most likely to have used to test his hypothesis?
 Identify the formula for the singlesample t test.
 When performing a singlesample t test, an effect size of 0.80 would be interpreted as a:
 For the singlesample t test, the confidence interval is centered around the:
 To determine our critical values or cutoffs for an independentsamples t test, we use:
 A researcher collects 15 data points that yield a mean of 9.164 and a standard deviation (based on N – 1) of 2.377. What is the standard error for the distribution of means?
 A study found statistically significant results for a hypothesis tested with an independentsamples t test. The author of the study reported her effect size for the test as 1.24. What is true of the two sample means? PSYC 355 – Psychotherapy Theory and Research Assignments.
 In a pairedsamples test, the comparison distribution is a distribution of:
 A researcher conducts a singlesample t test and finds statistical significance at the 0.01 level. The effect size is then calculated and found to be 0.04. What might you conclude about the findings?
 The second step in conducting the singlesample t test involves ________ and
 In a paired‐samples test, the comparison distribution is a distribution of:
 For an independent‐samples t test, there were 8 participants in Group 1 and 11 participants in Group 2. The total degrees of freedom were:
 Twenty college students experience the effects of alcohol on reaction time. They perform very basic timed responses in a driving simulator both before and after consuming several alcoholic beverages. The researcher collects a reaction time result for each of the 20 students before and after intoxication, for a total of 40 measures. What are the degrees of freedom for this study?
 A researcher studies 45 volunteer citizens from a small community and asks them about the amount of caffeine (in milligrams) they ingest before and after lunch each day. The null hypothesis for this paired‐samples study could be:
 In addition to reporting the results of statistical hypothesis testing, it is also recommended that researchers to report:
 When we know the population mean but not the population standard deviation, which statistic do we use to compare a sample to the population?
 When performing a single‐sample t test, an effect size of 0.80 would be interpreted as a:
 As the sample size becomes smaller, the t distributions become:
 We have learned three t tests, including all of the following except:
 The comparison distribution for an independent‐samples t test is a distribution of:
 A study found statistically significant results for a hypothesis tested with an independent‐samples t test. The author of the study reported her effect size for the test as 0.82. According to Cohen’s convention, this effect size is considered:
 The two populations compared in an independent‐samples t test include the:
 Which of these is NOT an assumption of the paired‐samples t test?
 The formula for the degrees of freedom for the dependent‐samples t test is:
 A psychologist is interested in whether working memory is influenced by sleep loss. The psychologist administers a measure of working memory to a group of subjects at 8 A.M. on Day One of the study and then again at 8 A.M. on Day Two of the study, after keeping the subjects awake the entire night. Does sleep loss affect working memory? What is the statistical analysis we would perform to answer this question?
 The formula for the research hypothesis for a paired‐samples t test is:
 According to the null hypothesis, the mean difference for the comparison distribution in a paired‐samples t test is:
 In a paired‐samples t test, the null hypothesis posits that the mean of the comparison distribution is:
 The formula for the degrees of freedom for the single‐sample t test is:
 A study by Bettmann (2007) published in the Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association assessed whether the attachment relationships between adolescents and their parents change as a result of a residential wilderness treatment experience for the adolescents. Participants completed the Adolescent Attachment Questionnaire at the start and at the end of the wilderness program. Which statistical test would we use to determine whether the wilderness treatment affected attachment relationships? PSYC 355 – Psychotherapy Theory and Research Assignments.
 A clinical researcher was interested in determining whether his interventions were effective in minimizing depression symptoms among his participants. To assess the effectiveness of two of his treatment programs, he administered a depression inventory after his treatment for two different groups of clients, each receiving a different treatment. He hypothesized that depression scores would be different between the two groups. The researcher’s hypothesis is:
 s2pooled is the symbol for:
 Which of the following illustrates the correct APA format for reporting statistically significant results for an independent‐samples t test?
 Which example best illustrates APA’s standards for reporting descriptive statistics for an independent‐samples t test?
 For the single‐sample t test, the confidence interval is centered around the:
 The formula for the total degrees of freedom for the independent‐samples t test is:
 The mean of the comparison distribution for the null hypothesis of an independent‐ samples t test is:
 The appropriate symbolic representation of corrected variance for a sample is:
 The formula “H0: μ1 = μ2” is used to represent the:
 In a(n) ________, one sample is compared to a population for which we only know the mean during hypothesis testing.
 Mehl (2007) published in the journal Science the results of an extensive study of 396 men and women comparing the number of words uttered per day by each sex. Which statistical test should Mehl use to analyze the data?
 The critical cutoffs for a two‐tailed, paired‐samples t test with seven participants at a p level of 0.01 are:
 The numerator (top portion) of the ratio for calculating all the t statistics contains:
 The formula for the null hypothesis for a paired‐samples t test is:
 A psychologist is interested in whether working memory is influenced by sleep loss. The psychologist administers a measure of working memory to two groups of subjects. The subjects in one group were kept awake for the entire night and the subjects in the other group maintained their normal sleep schedules. Which statistical analysis would we perform to answer the question “Does sleep loss affect working memory?” PSYC 355 SPSS Homework 6 – Prediction: Bivariate Linear Regression.
 A p level of 0.05 corresponds to a confidence interval of ________%.
 According to the null hypothesis, the mean difference for the comparison distribution in a paired‐samples t test is:
 To determine our critical values or cutoffs for an independent‐samples t test, we use:
 If the standard deviation for a population, as estimated from a sample, is s = 10.23, then the standard error for a sample size of N = 20 is: