PSY 331 Psychology of Learning
PSY 331 Psychology of Learning
Week 2 – Assignment
Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Development
Prior to beginning work on this assignment, please read all the required readings and the Instructor Guidance, as well as view all required multimedia. It is suggested that you also review the recommended resources for this week as a number of them may assist you in creating this written assignment with links to applicable articles.
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Too often, when we learn about memory development, we forget that this has a direct relationship to effectively learning. Knowledge is essentially a memory and how well we process information affects our performance at many levels. For this paper, you will be explaining some of the cognitive-based ideologies that explain how memory development works, how it is affected by outside variables, and strategies for improving one’s own information processing effectively. You will demonstrate an understanding of psychological research methods and skeptical inquiry by correctly utilizing support resources within your writing. PSY 331 Psychology of Learning
Discuss the following in your paper:
- What is memory development and how does it relate to acquiring new knowledge?
- Why is it important to successfully move information from working (short-term) memory to long-term memory (effective information processing)?
- What strategies can be utilized to move knowledge from working memory to long-term memory more effectively? (List a minimum of three strategies.)
- How much does attention and perception play a role in successful development of schema?
- How do the types of memories (knowledge) affect how we effectively process information?
- Consider the following:
- Semantic memories
- Episodic memories
- Autobiographical memories
- Consider the following:
- How does false memory development affect how we learn effectively? Is anyone immune?
The Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Development paper
- Must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
- Must include a separate title page with the following:
- Title of paper
- Student’s name
- Course name and number
- Instructor’s name
- Date submitted
- Must use headings and sub-headings. See example. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
- Must use appropriate research methods (e.g. use of the Ashford library) to support the content inclusions.
- Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. [Explain the topic of this paper and succinctly summarize the elements you will discuss.]
- Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought. For assistance with the critical thinking portion of the written assignment, please see the information included on the Critical Thinking Community website (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
- Must end with a conclusion that summarizes your topic and findings.
- Must use at least one scholarly source from the Ashford University Library, in addition to the required e-book.
- Must not use quoted material.
- Please synthesize the information you have read. For tips on how to do this please click here (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
- Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
- Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. If you are unsure how to create an APA style reference page, please visit the Citation and Reference page on the Ashford Writing Center website.
- Submit this paper to the Grammarly tool within the course prior to submission. See resources tab on the left.
Memory and Learning
After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
· Explain how working memory and long-term memory work together to create memories.
· Explain Baddeley’s model of working memory.
· Describe the roles of attention and perception in memory formation.
· Analyze how human cognitive architecture affects learning.
· Identify strategies for learning as suggested by cognitive load theory.
· Evaluate how schema construction is affected by automation.
· Explain autobiographical memory and how it affects knowledge acquisition.
· Describe how false memory development affects effective learning.
Have you ever
· wondered why you remember some things accurately, but not others?
· noticed that your memories about an event differ greatly from someone else’s memories?
· wanted to improve your memory?
· felt overwhelmed by the amount of information you need to remember?
· considered that what you remember about persons, places, and things has a direct relationship to who you believe you are as a person?
· experienced a disagreement with a friend who says you participated in an event together, but you do not remember the event?
Technological advancements make it possible for researchers to continue to learn about the science of cognition.
These types of questions make the study of memory development and its role in learning a popular topic. Curiosity and technological advancement have furthered research in many areas of brain science and cognition, such as neuropsychology (the relationship between brain and cognition, emotion, and behaviors), neurobiology (the relationship between the nervous system and behaviors and information processing), and psychometrics (the measurement of attitudes, traits, achievement, attitudes, skills, and knowledge). In addition, psychologists who study human thought processes and the capacity for successful knowledge acquisition have multidimensional emphases often based on their personal interests. For example, some psychologists choose to focus on memory development associated with learning disabilities, the effects of emotion on false memory development, injury recovery, or motivational triggers activating increased attention and perception. The list of areas for study is endless, especially as researchers continue to better understand how the human brain functions.
A more holistic understanding of how memory processes work is an important step toward understanding the bigger picture of how humans learn. In Chapter 2, you were introduced to cognition and components that align with this theoretical model: information processing, schema development, cognitive mapping, and Bloom’s taxonomy. This chapter will explore how these concepts fit into the bigger picture of memory development. As you read, consider how your own memory development has helped or even hindered you throughout your life. Consider how memory development has affected your loved ones, whether they are young or entering later stages of life. Connecting the chapter content to your personal experiences will help you make solid connections through successful schema development. (To learn more about one researcher’s studies of working memory and the effects of its limitations, see Reinforcing Your Understanding: Making Sense of the World Around Us.)
Reinforcing Your Understanding: Making Sense of the World Around Us
Peter Doolittle is an educational psychologist and the executive director of the Center for Instructional Development and Educational Research at Virginia Tech. In his TEDTalk “How your ‘working memory’ makes sense of the world,” he discusses the four basic components of working memory and how its limitations can affect our ability to process the world around us. Specifically, limitations of working memory contribute to how well we make sense of what is going on in each moment. Doolittle describes some strategies that can be used to make the most out of the information that’s in our environments. Consider how understanding and applying such strategies can potentially improve your own memory development.
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3.1 Working Memory
What exactly is working memory? Working memory is a cognitive system that temporarily stores and manages a limited amount of information. Working memory is often referred to as short-term memory, although short-term memory is considered only one component of the larger mechanism of holding and manipulating information included in working memory. Baddeley noted that working memory is “a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning” (2003, p. 189).
Working memory is essential because it regulates our attentiveness to tasks and how we manage distractions, apply strategies to our learning experiences, and form long-term memories. Long-term memory (LTM) is the virtually limitless cognitive system that permanently stores, manages, and retrieves information for later use.
According to Baddeley’s model of working memory , the maintenance of information occurs in one of three subcomponents within this system: the visuo-spatial scratchpad , which holds and manages spatial information; the phonological loop , which holds and manages auditory information; and the episodic buffer , which creates representations of the information, aligning new knowledge to previous knowledge, as shown in Figure 3.1 (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). These systems are suggested to be controlled by the central executive system. PSY 331 Psychology of Learning
Figure 3.1: Baddeley’s model of working memory
Baddeley and Hitch proposed a three-part model of working memory. The central executive system controls the three subcomponents by filtering all available information.