Wk7 Assignment: Controversial Art and Censorship

Wk7 Assignment: Controversial Art and Censorship

Wk7 Assignment: Controversial Art and Censorship

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapter 14
  • Minimum of 1 primary sources (artist statement)
  • Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook – from critic)


Although controversial art is not a topic exclusive to the 20th and 21st centuries, the distribution of information regarding controversial art has increased with the proliferation of media. Choose an example of a controversial work of art from the 20th or 21stcenturies from any discipline of the humanities (music, literature, sculpture, film, television, etc.). Then, address the following:

  • Identify the work and the medium.
  • Based on your example, to what extent does this work of controversial art make a social contribution?
  • What aesthetic value does the work have? How does it reflect the human condition? How does it relate to your life?
  • Has this work ever been censored? If so, explain the circumstances.
  • Are governments ever justified in censoring art? Why or why not?
  • Examine some of the influences of this work of art.
  • Argue whether or not this work should be considered art. Explain why using terms learned in this course.
  • Include an accompanying statement from the artist(s) and a statement from a critic to support your points.

Writing Requirements (APA format)

  • Length: 1.5-2 pages (not including title page or references page)
  • 1-inch margins
  • Double spaced
  • 12-point Times New Roman font
  • Title page
  • References page (minimum of 1 scholarly source and 1 primary source)

This activity will be graded based on the W7 Essay Grading Rubric.

Course Outcomes (CO): 2, 4, 6

  • attachment

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    T e n t h E d i t i o n

    Lee A. Jacobus Professor of English Emeritus

    University of Connecticut

    F. David Martin Professor of Philosophy Emeritus

    Bucknell University

    ©Universal History Archive/Getty Images

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    Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2019 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2015, 2011, and 2008. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Wk7 Assignment: Controversial Art and Censorship

    Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

    This book is printed on acid-free paper.

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LCR 21 20 19 18

    Bound: ISBN 978-1-259-91687-8 MHID 1-259-91687-1

    Looseleaf: ISBN 978-1-260-15418-4 MHID 1-260-15418-1

    Portfolio Manager: Sarah Remington Product Developers: Beth Tripmacher, Bruce Cantley Content Project Managers: Mary E. Powers (Core), Emily Windelborn (Assessment) Buyer: Susan K. Culbertson Design: Tara McDermott Content Licensing Specialist: Carrie Burger Compositor: MPS Limited Cover Image: (background): LACMA – Los Angeles County Museum of Art; (back cover (left) to front cover (right)); (door): ©Lee A. Jacobus; (wall carving): ©Lee A. Jacobus; (cave painting): ©siloto/Shutterstock RF; (amphitheater): ©Inu/Shutterstock RF; (Taj Mahal): ©Seb c’est bien/Shutterstock RF; (dancer): ©Fuse/Getty Images RF; (Shakespeare): ©duncan1890/Getty Images RF; (sculpture): National Gallery of Art, Washington; (graffiti): ©Lee A. Jacobus; (church): National Archives Catalog; (violin): ©Comstock Images/SuperStock RF. Wk7 Assignment: Controversial Art and Censorship

    All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Martin, F. David, 1920- author. | Jacobus, Lee A., author.  The humanities through the arts/F. David Martin, Professor of  Philosophy Emeritus, Bucknell University; Lee A. Jacobus, Professor of  English Emeritus, University of Connecticut.  Tenth edition. | New York : McGraw-Hill Education, 2018. | Includes index.  LCCN 2017051530 | ISBN 9781259916878 (alk. paper)  LCSH: Arts–Psychological aspects. | Art appreciation.  LCC NX165 .M37 2018 | DDC 701/.18–dc23 LC record available  at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017051530

    The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.


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    Lee A. Jacobus (PhD, Claremont Graduate University) taught at Western Con- necticut State University and then at the University of Connecticut (Storrs) until he retired in 2001. He held a Danforth Teachers Grant while earning his doctor- ate. His publications include Shakespeare and the Dialectic of Certainty (St. Martin’s Press, 1992); Sudden Apprehension: Aspects of Knowledge in Paradise Lost (Mouton, 1976); John Cleveland: A Critical Study (G. K. Hall, 1975); Aesthetics and the Arts (McGraw-Hill, 1968); The Bedford Introduction to Drama (Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2018); and A World of Ideas (Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2017). Wk7 Assignment: Controversial Art and Censorship

    F. David Martin (PhD, University of Chicago) taught at the University of Chicago and then at Bucknell University until his retirement in 1983. He was a Fulbright Research Scholar in Florence and Rome from 1957 through 1959 and received seven other major research grants during his career, as well as the Christian Lind- back Award for Distinguished Teaching. Dr. Martin’s publications include Art and the Religious Experience (Associated University Presses, 1972); Sculpture and the En- livened Space (The University Press of Kentucky, 1981); and Facing Death: Theme and Variations (Associated University Presses, 2006). Professor Martin died in 2014.

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    We dedicate this study to teachers and students of the humanities.

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    PREFACE xi


    1 The Humanities: An Introduction 1 2 What Is a Work of Art? 17

    3 Being a Critic of the Arts 42

    Part 2 THE ARTS

    4 Painting 58 5 Sculpture 91

    6 Architecture 121 7 Literature 163 8 Theater 196 9 Music 224

    10 Dance 254 11 Photography 276

    12 Cinema 299 13 Television and Video Art 330


    14 Is It Art or Something Like It? 352 15 The Interrelationships of the Arts 378

    16 The Interrelationships of the Humanities 397


    INDEX I-1

    Source: The Michael C. Rockefeller Memorial Collection, Bequest of Nelson A. Rockefeller, 1979/The Metropolitan Museum of Art

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    Subject Matter and Content 34

    EXPERIENCING: Interpretations of the Female Nude 40

    Further Thoughts on Artistic Form 41 Summary 41

    3 Being a Critic of the Arts 42 You Are Already an Art Critic 42 Participation and Criticism 43 Three Kinds of Criticism 43 Descriptive Criticism 44 Interpretive Criticism 48 Evaluative Criticism 52

    EXPERIENCING: The Polish Rider 55 Summary 56

    Part 2 THE ARTS

    4 Painting 58 Our Visual Powers 58 The Media of Painting 59 Tempera 59 Fresco 61 Oil 62 Watercolor 64 Acrylic 64 Other Media and Mixed Media 65

    Elements of Painting 68

    PREFACE xi


    1  The Humanities: An Introduction 1

    The Humanities: A Study of Values 1 Art, Commerce, and Taste 4 Responses to Art 5

    EXPERIENCING: The Mona Lisa 9

    Structure and Artistic Form 10 Perception 11

    Abstract Ideas and Concrete Images 12 Summary 16

    2 What Is a Work of Art? 17 Identifying Art Conceptually 18 Identifying Art Perceptually 18 Artistic Form 19 Participation 23 Participation and Artistic Form 25 Content 26 Subject Matter 28 Subject Matter and Artistic Form 28 Participation, Artistic Form, and Content 29 Artistic Form: Examples 30

    Photo: Kira Perov. Courtesy Bill Viola Studio

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    CONTENTS  vii

    6 Architecture 121 Centered Space 121 Space and Architecture 122 Chartres 123 Living Space 125 Four Necessities of Architecture 126 Technical Requirements of Architecture 126 Functional Requirements of Architecture 127 Spatial Requirements of Architecture 131 Revelatory Requirements of Architecture 131

    Earth-Rooted Architecture 132 Site 132 Gravity 133 Raw Materials 134 Centrality 136

    Sky-Oriented Architecture 138 Axis Mundi 141 Defiance of Gravity 142 Integration of Light 143

    Earth-Resting Architecture 144 Earth-Dominating Architecture 145 Combinations of Types 146 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and The Taj Mahal 147

    EXPERIENCING: The Taj Mahal 149

    High-Rises and Skyscrapers 150

    FOCUS ON: The Alhambra 155

    Urban Planning 157 Summary 161

    7 Literature 163 Spoken Language and Literature 163 Literary Structures 167 The Narrative and the Narrator 167 The Episodic Narrative 169 The Organic Narrative 171 The Quest Narrative 176 The Lyric 177

    EXPERIENCING: “La Belle Dame Sans Merci” 182

    Line 68 Color 72 Texture 73 Composition 73

    The Clarity of Painting 75 The “All-at-Onceness” of Painting 77 Abstract Painting 78 Intensity and Restfulness in Abstract Painting 80 Representational Painting 81 Comparison of Five Impressionist Paintings 81

    FOCUS ON: The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood 86

    Frames 88 EXPERIENCING: Frames 89

    Summary 90

    5 Sculpture 91 Sensory Interconnections 92 Sculpture and Painting Compared 92 Sculpture and Space 94 Sunken-Relief Sculpture 94 Low-Relief Sculpture 95 High-Relief Sculpture 96 Sculpture in the Round 97 Sculpture and Architecture Compared 98 Sensory Space 99 Sculpture and the Human Body 99 Sculpture in the Round and the

    Human Body 101 EXPERIENCING: Sculpture and Physical Size 103

    Contemporary Sculpture 104 Truth to Materials 104 Protest against Technology 108 Accommodation with Technology 110 Machine Sculpture 112 Earth Sculpture 113

    FOCUS ON: African Sculpture 114

    Sculpture in Public Places 117 Summary 120

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    viii  CONTENTS

    Literary Details 183 Image 184 Metaphor 185 Symbol 187 Irony 189 Diction 190

    FOCUS ON: Po Chü’i, Poet of the T’ang Dynasty 191 Summary 194

    8 Theater 196 Aristotle and the Elements of Drama 197 Dialogue and Soliloquy 198

    Archetypal Patterns 200 Genres of Drama: Tragedy 201 The Tragic Stage 202 Stage Scenery and Costumes 202 Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet 206

    Comedy: Old and New 209 Tragicomedy: The Mixed Genre 211 A Play for Study: Riders to the Sea 211

    EXPERIENCING: Riders to the Sea 218

    FOCUS ON: Musical Theater: Hamilton 218

    Experimental Drama 221 Summary 222

    9 Music 224 Hearing and Listening 224 The Elements of Music 225 Tone 225 Consonance 226 Dissonance 226 Rhythm 227 Tempo 227 Melodic Material: Melody, Theme, and Motive 227 Counterpoint 228 Harmony 228 Dynamics 229 Contrast 229

    The Subject Matter of Music 229 Feelings 230

    EXPERIENCING: Chopin’s Prelude 7 in A Major 231

    Two Theories: Formalism and Expressionism 233 Sound 233 Tonal Center 234 Musical Structures 236 Theme and Variations 236 Rondo 236 Fugue 237 Sonata Form 237 Symphony 238

    FOCUS ON:  Beethoven’s Symphony in E♭ Major, No. 3, Eroica 243

    Blues and Jazz: Popular American Music 248 Rock and Roll and Rap 251 Summary 253

    10 Dance 254 Subject Matter of Dance 254

    EXPERIENCING: Feeling and Dance 256

    Form 257 Dance and Ritual 258 Ritual Dance 258 Social Dance 259 The Court Dance 259

    Ballet 260 Swan Lake 262

    Modern Dance 265 Alvin Ailey’s Revelations 267 Martha Graham 269 Batsheva Dance Company 270 Pilobolus and Momix Dance Companies 271 Mark Morris Dance Group 272

    FOCUS ON: Theater Dance 272

    Popular Dance 274 Summary 275

    11 Photography 276 Photography and Painting 276

    EXPERIENCING: Photography and Art 280

    Photography and Painting: The Pictorialists 281

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    CONTENTS  ix

    Straight Photography 283 The f/64 Group 284

    The Documentarists 286 The Modern Eye 292

    FOCUS ON: Digital Photography 296 Summary 298

    12 Cinema 299 The Subject Matter of Film 299 Directing and Editing 300 The Participative Experience and Film 303 The Film Image 305

    EXPERIENCING: Still Frames and Photography 305

    Camera Point of View 308 Violence and Film 310 Sound 312 Image and Action 313 Cinematic Structure 315 Cinematic Details 317 The Context of Film History 318 Two Great Films: The Godfather and

    Casablanca 319 The Narrative Structure of The Godfather Films 320 Coppola’s Images 321 Coppola’s Use of Sound 321 The Power of The Godfather 322

    FOCUS ON: Michael Curtiz’s Casablanca 323

    Experimentation 326 Animated Film 327 Summary 329

    13 Television and Video Art 330 The Evolution of Television 330 The Subject Matter of Television and

    Video Art 331 Commercial Television 332 The Television Series 333 The Structure of the Self-Contained Episode 334

    The Television Serial 335 Three Emmy Winners 339

    FOCUS ON: The Americans 342

    Video Art 344 EXPERIENCING: Jacopo Pontormo and Bill Viola: The

    Visitation 348 Summary 351


    14  Is It Art or Something Like It? 352

    Art and Artlike 352 Illustration 354 Realism 354 Folk Art 355 Popular Art 357 Propaganda 362

    EXPERIENCING: Propaganda Art 362

    FOCUS ON: Kitsch 363

    Decoration 365 Idea Art 370 Dada 370 Duchamp and His Legacy 371 Conceptual Art 372

    Performance Art 374 Virtual Art 376 Summary 377

    15  The Interrelationships of the Arts 378

    Appropriation 378 Interpretation 379 Film Interprets Literature: Howards End 380 Music Interprets Drama: The Marriage of Figaro 382 Painting Interprets Poetry: The Starry Night 385 Sculpture Interprets Poetry: Apollo and Daphne 387

    EXPERIENCING: Bernini’s Apollo and Daphne and Ovid’s The Metamorphoses 389

    Drama Interprets Painting 390

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    EXPERIENCING: The Humanities and Students of Medicine 399

    Values 400 FOCUS ON:  The Arts and History, the Arts and Philosophy,

    the Arts and Theology 402 Summary 406


    INDEX I-1

    FOCUS ON: Photography Interprets Fiction 391

    Architecture Interprets Dance: National Nederlanden Building 392 Painting Interprets Dance and Music: The Dance and Music 392

    EXPERIENCING: Death in Venice: Three Versions 395 Summary 396

    16  The Interrelationships of the Humanities 397

    The Humanities and the Sciences 397 The Arts and the Other Humanities 398

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    The Humanities through the Arts, tenth edition, explores the humanities with an em- phasis on the arts. Examining the relationship of the humanities to values, objects, and events important to people is central to this book. We make a distinction between artists and other humanists: Artists reveal values, while other humanists examine or reflect on values. We study how values are revealed in the arts while keeping in mind a basic question: “What is art?” Judging by the existence of ancient artifacts, we see that artistic expression is one of the most fundamental human activities. It binds us together as a people by revealing the most important values of our culture. Wk7 Assignment: Controversial Art and Censorship

    Our genre-based approach offers students the opportunity to understand the relationship of the arts to human values by examining, in-depth, each of the major artistic media. Subject matter, form, and content in each of the arts supply the framework for careful analysis. Painting and photography focus our eyes on the visual appearance of things. Sculpture reveals the textures, densities, and shapes of things. Architecture sharpens our perception of spatial relationships, both in- side and out. Literature, theater, cinema, and video explore values and make us more aware of the human condition. Our understanding of feelings is deepened by music. Our sensitivity to movement, especially of the human body, is enhanced by dance. The wide range of opportunities for criticism and analysis helps the reader synthesize the complexities of the arts and their interaction with values of many kinds. All of this is achieved with an exceptionally vivid and complete illustration program alongside detailed discussion and interactive responses to the problems inherent in a close study of the arts and values of our time.


    This edition, as with previous editions, is organized into three parts, offering con- siderable flexibility in the classroom:

    Part 1, “Fundamentals,” includes the first three introductory chapters. In Chapter 1, The Humanities: An Introduction, we distinguish the humanities from the sciences, and the arts from other humanities. In Chapter 2, What Is a Work of Art?, we raise the question of definition in art and the ways in which we distinguish art from other objects and experiences. Chapter 3, Being a Critic of the Arts, introduces the vital role of criticism in art appreciation and evaluation.

    ©ArenaPal/Topham/The Image Works

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    Part 2, “The Arts,” includes individual chapters on each of the basic arts. The structure of this section permits complete flexibility: The chapters may be used in their present order or in any order one wishes. We begin with the individual chapters Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture; follow with Literature, Theater, Music, and Dance; and continue with Photography, Cinema, and Television and Video Art. Instructors may reorder or omit chapters as needed. The chapter Pho- tography logically precedes the chapters Cinema and Television and Video Art for the convenience of instructors who prefer to teach the chapters in the order presented.

    Part 3, “Interrelationships,” begins with Chapter 14, Is It Art or Something Like It? We study illustration, folk art, propaganda, and kitsch while raising the question “What is art?” We also examine the avant-garde as it pushes us to the edge of defi- nition. Chapter 15, The Interrelationships of the Arts, explores the ways in which the arts work together, as in how a film interprets E. M. Forster’s novel Howards End, how literature and a musical interpretation of a Beaumarchais play result in Mo- zart’s opera The Marriage of Figaro, how Walt Whitman’s poetry inspires van Gogh’s painting The Starry Night, how a passage from Ovid’s epic poem “The Metamorpho- ses” inspires the Bernini sculpture Apollo and Daphne, and more. Chapter 16, The Interrelationships of the Humanities, addresses the ways in which the arts reveal val- ues shared by the other humanities—particularly history, philosophy, and theology.

    Key Changes in the tenth editiOn

    NEW Expanded Connect course with SmartBook. Connect is a highly reliable, easy-to-use homework and learning management solution that embeds learning science and award-winning adaptive tools to improve student results.

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    LearnSmart is an adaptive learning program designed to help students learn faster, study smarter, and retain more knowledge for greater success. Distinguishing what students know from what they don’t, and focusing on concepts they are most likely to forget, LearnSmart continuously adapts to each student’s needs by building a personalized learning path. An intelligent adaptive study tool, LearnSmart is proven to strengthen memory recall, keep students in class, and boost grades. Wk7 Assignment: Controversial Art and Censorship

    The Humanities Through the Arts now offers two reading experiences for students and instructors: SmartBook and eBook. Fueled by LearnSmart, SmartBook is the first and only adaptive reading experience currently available. SmartBook™ creates a personalized reading experience by highlighting the most impactful concepts a student needs to learn at that moment in time. The reading experience continu- ously adapts by highlighting content based on what the student knows and doesn’t know. Real-time reports quickly identify the concepts that require more attention from individual students—or the entire class. eBook provides a simple, elegant read- ing experience, available for offline reading.

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    Updated illustration program and contextual discussions. More than 30 percent of the images in this edition are new or have been updated to include fresh classic and contemporary works. New discussions of these works appear near the illustrations. The 200-plus images throughout the book have been carefully chosen and reproduced in full color when possible, resulting in a beautifully illustrated text. Newly added visual artists represented include painters Arte- misia Gentileschi, Diego Velasquez, Frederic Lord Leighton, Amedeo Modigliani, Winslow Homer, Morris Louis, Hokusai, Willem de Kooning, Jean-Honore Frag- onard, Arshile Gorky, Henry Wallis, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Arthur Hughes, William Holman Hunt, and John Waterhouse; sculptors Edgar Degas, Kara Walker, Magdalena Abakanowicz, and Naum Gabo; photographers Berenice Abbott, Nan Goldin, Paul Strand, Bruce Davidson, Carrie Mae Weems, Tina Barney, Wang Quinsong, and Bill Gekas; and video artists Pipilotti Riist and Bill Viola. Newly added film and television stills represent Michael Curtiz’s classic film Casablanca, the popular television shows Game of Thrones and The Americans, Orson Wells’s The Lady from Shanghai, Jonathan Demme’s The Silence of the Lambs, Steven Spielberg’s Saving Private Ryan, Alejandro Inarritu’s The Revenant, and more.

    Along with the many new illustrations and contextual discussions of the visual arts, film, and television, new works and images in the literary, dance, theatrical, and musical arts have been added and contextualized. These include works by Robert Herrick, John Masefield, Amy Lowell, Alfred Lord Tennyson, John Donne, Wang Chang-Ling, Po Chu’i, John Millington Synge, Lin-Manuel Miranda, Frederic Chopin, Tupac Shakur, and the Batsheva Dance Company.

    Increased focus on non-Western art and art by minority and female artists. This edition contains numerous new examples, including paintings (Artemesia Gentileschi’s Self-portrait as the Allegory of Painting and Hokusai’s The Wave), sculpture (Kara Walker’s A Subtlety, or The Marvelous Sugar Baby and Magdalena Abakanowicz’s Bronze Crowd), architecture (the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, Egypt), literature (Amy Lowell’s “Venus Transiens” and Po Chu’i’s T’ang dynasty poetry), theater (Lin-Manual Miranda’s Hamilton), dance (the Batsheva Dance Company), photography (Berenice Abbott, Nan Goldin, Carrie Mae Weems, Tina Barney, and Wang Quinsong), film (The Revenant), and television and video art (Pipilotti Riist). Wk7 Assignment: Controversial Art and Censorship

    PedagOgiCal Features

    Four major pedagogical boxed features enhance student understanding of the genres and of individual works within the genres: Perception Key, Conception Key, Experiencing, and Focus On.

    • The Perception Key boxes are designed to sharpen readers’ responses to the arts. These boxes raise important questions about specific works of art in a way that respects the complexities of the works and of our responses to them. The questions raised are usually open-ended and thereby avoid any doctrinaire views or dogmatic opinions. The emphasis is on perception and

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