Assignment1: Initial Analysis for Program Planning

Assignment1: Initial Analysis for Program Planning

Assignment1: Initial Analysis for Program Planning

Needs Assessment

“As a concept, need is not only difficult to define but, once defined, difficult to measure” (Kettner, Moroney, & Martin, 2017, p. 63). Likewise, it can be challenging to define and measure assets—yet it is equally important to do so during this phase of program planning. This week’s Learning Resources provide foundational information and guidance for conducting needs assessments, which entails discerning needs that must be addressed in light of the assets that are present. Assignment1: Initial Analysis for Program Planning


As you return to Assignment 1, the attention turns to conducting a needs assessment for the problem you have identified. What data collection strategies could be most useful? What issues would likely be encountered? How would you address them?

To prepare for this week’s section of Assignment 1:

  • Continue      (from the Discussion) to:
    • Identify       a viable approach for conducting a needs assessment for your problem.
    • Identify       method(s) of data collection.
    • Assess       potential challenges and propose alternatives/solutions.

The full Assignment 1 is due by day 4 (Thursday 12/20/18) of this week. Instructions have been provided in previous weeks to help you prepare.

By Day 4

To complete:

Write a 3- to 5-page paper, in APA format with at least 7 scholarly references in which you address the following level 1 and 2 header:

Also include an introduction and a conclusion as per APA guidelines.

1) Identification of a Problem and a Population

  • Identify      a problem and a target population.
    (Note: Your problem      should be clearly developed and related to a health-promotion and      disease-prevention issue of national significance. You should select a      target population so that your program can be designed to create maximum      yet realistic impact at the aggregate level.)

2) Using a Theory or Model

  • Analyze      a theory or model that is relevant to your selected problem. Explain why      this is the most appropriate model for you to use with this problem.

3) Literature Review (provide at least 4 scholarly articles less than 5 years old) )

  • Assess      the literature as it relates to your problem. Use evidence from the      literature to support your response to the following question: Why is it important to assist this      population to resolve the selected problem?

4) Needs Assessment

  • Describe      an appropriate approach to conducting a needs assessment for your problem.
  • Identify      method(s) of data collection.
  • Assess      potential challenges and propose alternatives/solutions.

Required Readings

Hodges, B. C., & Videto, D. M. (2011). Assessment and planning in health programs (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Chapter 1, “Assessment for Developing Programs and Interventions: The Big Picture”

Chapter 1 notes the importance of looking not just at needs but also the assets associated with the target population and environment; that is, assessing what needs to be addressed given the assets that are present.

This report offers a guide for the use of the logic model in program planning and outcome-oriented evaluation for nonprofit projects.

Chapter 3, “Data Collection Strategies for Needs Assessments and Evaluations”

In Chapter 3, the authors examine data collection, a key element of needs assessments. They also indicate that it is wise to plan ahead and consider data collection strategies for evaluation at the same time.

  • Chapter 2, “Paint a Picture of Your Target Population:      Assessing Assets and Problems” 

This chapter presents valuable information for identifying your target population during program planning. Note: Some of the information in this chapter extends into needs assessment, which will be addressed in Week 4.

Chapter 6, “The Importance and Use of Theories in Health Education and Health Promotion”

The authors describe various theories, noting that theories are not universally applicable to every program.

Kettner, P. M., Moroney, R. M., & Martin, L. L. (2017). Designing and managing programs: An effectiveness-based approach (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Review Chapter 1, “Contemporary Issues in Social      Services Program Planning and Administration” (See attached file).
  • Review Chapter 3, “Understanding Social      Problems” (See attached file).

Review these chapters as needed to help you identify a health care-related problem for program planning and evaluation. For instance, you may find the problem analysis information on page 13 and pages 38–39 beneficial.

Chapter 2, “The Contribution of Theory to Program Planning”

This chapter examines the application of theory in program planning.

Chapter 4, “Needs Assessment: Theoretical Considerations”

Chapter 5, “Needs Assessment: Approaches to Measurement”

These two chapters provide foundational information as well as guidance for conducting a needs assessment as part of program planning.

Adams, J. & Kaplow, R. (2013). A sitter reduction program in an acute health care system. Nursing Economics$, 31(2), 83–89.

Pinto, B.M., Waldemore, M., & Rosen, R. (2015). A community-based partnership to promote exercise among cancer survivors: Lessons learned. International Journal Behavioral Medicine, 22, 328–335 doi 10.1007/s12529-014-9395-5

Tompa, E., deBoer, H., Macdonald, S., Alarngir, H., Koehoorn, M., & Guzman, J. (2016). Stakeholders’ perspectives about and priorities for economic evaluation of health and safety programs in healthcare. Workplace Health and Safety, 64(4), 163–174 DOI: 10.1177/2165079915620201.

Leading Health Indicators. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2017, from 

National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2017, from 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Healthy People 2020. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2017, from 

IOM Future of Nursing Report. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2017, from

Berhane, A., Biadgilign, S., Berhane, A., & Memiah, P. (2015). Male involvement in family planning program in Northern Ethiopia: An application of the Transtheoretical model. Patient Education and Counseling 98, 469–475

Kroelinger, C.D., Rankin, K. M., Chamgers, D.A., Diez Roux, A.V., Huges, K., & Grigorescu, V. (2014). Using the principles of complex systems thinking and implementation sceice to enhance maternal and child health program planning and delivery. Maternal Child Health Journal, 18, 1560–1564. doi 10.1007/s10995-014-1586-9

Silverman, B., Champney, J., Steber, S., & Zubritsky, C. (2015). Collaborating for consensus: Considerations for convening Coalition stakeholders to promote a gender-based approach to addressing the health needs of sex workers. Evaluation and Program Planning 51,17–26

Smith, T.L., Barlow, P.b., Peters, J.M., & Skolits, G.J. (2015). Demystifying reflective practice: Using the DATA model to enhance evaluators’ professional activities. Evaluation and Program Planning, 52, 142–147.

Burrows, T., Hutchesson, M., Chai, L,K., Rollow, M., Skinner, G., & Collins, C. (2015). Nutrition interventions for prevention and management of childhood obesity: What do parents want from an eHealth program? Nutrients, 7, 10469–10479 doi:10.3390/nu7125546

Derguy, C., Michel, G., M’Bailara, K., Roux, S., & Bouvard, M. (2015). Assessing needs in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: A crucial preliminary step to target relevant issues for support programs. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 40(2), 156–166

Millard, T., McDonald, K., Elliott, J., Slavin, S., Rowell, S., & Girdler, S. (2014). Informing the development of an online self-management program for men living with HIV: a needs assessment. BMC Public Health, 14, 1209 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1209

Springer, A. E. & Evans, A.E. (2016). Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners. Health Promotion Perspectives, 6(3), 111–118 doi: 10.15171/hpp.2016.19

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2011). Design and evaluation of programs and projects [Video file}. Baltimore, MD: Author.

You may view this course video by clicking the link or on the course DVD, which contains the same content. Once you’ve opened the link, click on the appropriate media piece.

In these videos, Dr. Melissa Willmarth, Dr. Debora Dole, and Dr. Donna Shambley-Ebron provide insights related to defining health care-related problems.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2011). Design and evaluation of programs and projects [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

“Needs Assessment” (featuring Dr. Rebecca Lee, Shiniche Thomas, and Dr. Donna Shambley-Ebron)

You may view this course video by clicking the link or on the course DVD, which contains the same content. Once you’ve opened the link, click on the appropriate media piece.

In this week’s videos, Dr. Rebecca Lee and Dr. Donna Shambley-Ebron discuss needs assessments. Then, Dr. Rebecca Lee demonstrates a windshield assessment along with Seven Hills community resident Shiniche Thomas.

Optional Resources

Algera, M., Francke, A. L., Kerkstra, A., & Van der Zee, J. (2004). Integrative literature reviews and meta-analyses: Home care needs of patients with long-term conditions: Literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 46(4), 417–429.

This article compares literature in the field to determine a profile for people with long-term health care conditions who utilize home care services.

Madden, S. G., Loeb, S. J., & Smith, C. A. (2008). An integrative literature review of lifestyle interventions for the prevention of type II diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(17), 2243–2256.

This article is an example of an integrative literature review that identifies aspects of nursing programs aimed at prevention of type II diabetes, effectiveness of such programs, and compliance with lifestyle changes after such programs.

Hulton, L. J. (2007). An evaluation of a school-based teenage pregnancy prevention program using a logic model framework. Journal of School Nursing, 23(2), 104–110.

This article describes the use of the logic model to develop, implement, and evaluate a nursing intervention in a school setting.

Johnson, S. S., Driskell, M., Johnson, J. L., Prochaska, J. M., Zwick, W., & Prochaska, J. O. (2006). Efficacy of a transtheoretical model-based expert system for antihypertensive adherence. Disease Management, 9(5), 291–301.

This article introduces the use of the transtheoretical model and stages of change as applied to interventions aimed at medication adherence for patients with hypertension.

Rogers, L. Q., Shah, P., Dunnington, G., Greive, A., Shanmugham, A., Dawson, B., & Courneya, K. S. (2005). Social cognitive theory and physical activity during breast cancer treatment. Oncology Nursing Forum, 32(4), 807–815.

The social cognitive theory is utilized to examine associations with physical activity in breast cancer patients. This article posits that the social cognitive theory can be used as a mediator for intervention evaluation with this population.

W. K. Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Using logic models to bring together planning, evaluation, and action: Logic model development guide. Battle Creek, MI: W. K. Kellogg Foundation. Retrieved from

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    Breast Cancer among African American Women in the United States

    Student’s Name



    Breast Cancer among African American Women in the United States

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women in entire world, and in the United States it is one of the most leading causes of cancer death. Irrespective of the major improvements made in breast cancer detection, diagnosis as well as prevention, studies indicate that African American women are still disproportionately affected by breast cancer (The American Cancer Society, 2012). Compared with White women, Black American women have higher mortality rates and are highly likely to be diagnosed with the disease before the age of 40 years. Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates trends demonstrate varying patterns among different races. Whereas African American women have lower lifetime risk of suffering from breast cancer, they have a higher mortality rates than white American women (Allicock et al., 2013). The American Cancer Society (2012) found that White women have a 90 percent five-year survival white African Americans have a five-year survival rate of 78 percent, which is lower than that of other racial as well as ethnic groups in the United States. Some of the causes of the inequality include inequalities in wealth, education, overall standard of living, work, housing as well as education and barriers to quality cancer prevention, detection as well as treatment services (Leading Health Indicators, n.d.). Assignment1: Initial Analysis for Program Planning

    Impact of Breast Cancer on African American Women Patients

    More than 50 percent of persons with cancer suffer from psychotic disorders, with anxiety and depressions being the most significant psychopathological comorbidities (Villar et al. 2017). At least 33 percent of persons with breast cancer can experience psychopathological disorders (Villar et al. 2017). Normally psychological morbidity is influenced by various concomitant as well as background factors that affect not only an individual’s quality of life, but also psychic functions. Davis et al. (2014) found associations between anxiety and some biopsychosocial predictors among African American women with cancer. The researchers indicated effects of anxiety, related high anxiety levels with intensification of physical symptoms as well as increase in the perception of adverse implications of treatments. Lewis et al. (2013), in their study found that all but one African American woman with cancer acknowledged the need for emotional as well as functional support during diagnosis. Seventy percent of the respondents recalled requiring support and another 56 percent functional support with their day to day tasks. However, more African American women with cancer at 68 percent reported receiving financial support than emotional support at 58 percent. More than 36 percent required more emotional support during diagnosis (Lewis et al., 2013),

    In addition to nurses’ interventions, various studies have examined the impact of exercise programs among cancer patients to improve the quality of life. Pinto, Waldemore and Rosen (2015) conducted a randomized controlled trial in conjunction with a community-based organization to examine the impact of peer mentoring in promotion of physical activity among cancer survivors. The researchers identified five main themes that can guide the planning and implementation of partnerships between evidence-based programs and community-based programs. The five themes include cost of partnership, the benefit of partnership, matching of trial goals with the community-based organizations missions, achievement of a balance between job tasks as well as research and importance of communication. The researchers conducted structured telephone interviews with 10 stakeholders at different job levels within the community-based organizations. Assignment1: Initial Analysis for Program Planning

    Impact of Peer Mentoring Programs on African American Cancer Patients

    Can collaboration between peer mentoring programs and community-based organizations among cancer survivors help reduce the incidence and mortality rates as well as the psychopathological impacts of breast cancer among African American women?



    Allicock, M., Graves, N., Gray, K., & Troester, M. (2013). African American women’s perspectives on breast cancer: Implications for communicating risk of basal-like breast cancer. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 24(2), 753–767. doi:10.1353/hpu.2013.0082

    American Cancer Society. (2012). Cancer facts and figures for African Americans 2011–2012. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society

    Davis, C. M., Myers, H. F., Nyamathi, A. M., Brecht, M. L., Lewis, M. A., & Hamilton, N. (2014). Biopsychosocial predictors of psychological functioning among African American breast cancer survivors. Journal of psychosocial oncology32(5), 493-516.

    Leading Health Indicators. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2017, from, P. E., Sheng, M., Rhodes, M. M., Jackson, K. E., & Schover, L. R. (2012). Psychosocial concerns of young African American breast cancer survivors. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology30(2), 168-184.

    Pinto, B.M., Waldemore, M., & Rosen, R. (2015). A community-based partnership to promote exercise among cancer survivors: Lessons learned. International Journal Behavioral Medicine, 22, 328–335

    Villar, R. R., Fernández, S. P., Garea, C. C., Pillado, M., Barreiro, V. B., & Martín, C. G. (2017). Quality of life and anxiety in women with breast cancer before and after treatment. The Latin American Journal of Nursing25(2958), 1-13.

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    Program Planning Theory




    Program Planning Theory

    Theory or Model and Justification

    The selected theory for the Breast cancer problem among the African American women is social cognitive theory abbreviated as SCT. This theory focuses on the impact of individual experiences, the activities and actions of others coupled with the sorrrounding or environmental facts on the health status and behavior of the affected population. this is made under the consideration that breast cancer is treatable but can also be fatal if advanced. The theory avails opportunities to offer support in the social context by installing expectations of “self-efficacy and utilizing the observational learning among other reinforcements to achieve a change of behavior and perception” (Cronin, 2016). The theory utilizes several concepts or components which are related to individual behavior change; firstly there is self-efficacy which is the belief that a person has ultimate control over their health and they can do as they wish, behavioral capability such as regular checkups despite the financial status involving understanding the importance of focusing on personal health. Thirdly there are expectations which determine the outcomes of the behavior change, for example, regular checkups where a patient expects to keep their health in check and at the required standard (Cronin, 2016). Fourthly there is self-control which gives the patient autonomy and total control of their behavior change, and most importantly there is observational learning where the African American women can observe what the white women do to keep their 90% survival rates. Lastly, the model is enforced through reinforcements which include the provision of incentives such as free checkups and rewards for every African American that achieves regular visits to the hospital (Cronin, 2016). Assignment1: Initial Analysis for Program Planning

    The current problem lies between social determinants and hindrances which are perceived by African Americans more than white women such as poverty, inaccessible healthcare services, and education among others. SCT as a theoretical framework of program planning can be utilized in different settings and environments aligned with the demands of this problem (Cronin, 2016). Most importantly it is a critical model for understanding the influence of social determinants of health and persons past experiences on behavior change (Cronin, 2016). This model is chosen on the basis that white Americans achieve better health standard by overcoming the social determinants which are also possible with the African Americans.

    SCT in Nursing and Other Fields

    The social cognitive theory was instituted by Albert Bandura as part of his theory of social learning. This theory originates from psychological fields. It has been utilized in education and communication In education for instance teachers and institutions tend to adopt models of learning depending on their success in other environments, for example, the use of grades as a reward or utilizing an online based or one on face teaching (Hauffman et al., 2017). According to this theory when people observe a model of behavior and consequences of the same trait their automatically remember the sequence of events and try to implement this information in guiding their subsequent behaviors. In the same context observation of a given behavior prompts the observer to engage in learned behavior (Lewis et al., 2015). In other words, the survival of humanity is dependent on replication of behaviors. In nursing, the SCT theory is utilized in several aspects, for example, it is the basis of evidence-based practice considering that providers try to replicate practices that work in other settings. Depending on whether there are rewards or punishments for the behavior as well as the outcome, the observer replicates the behavior as needed (Hauffman et al., 2017). Assignment1: Initial Analysis for Program Planning


    Cronin, C. (2016). Case Study Research: A Methodology for Nursing. Nursing Research Using Case Studies: Qualitative Designs and Methods in Nursing, 55.

    Hauffman, A., Alfonsson, S., Mattsson, S., Forslund, M., Bill-Axelson, A., Nygren, P., & Johansson, B. (2017). The development of a nurse-led internet-based learning and self-care program for cancer patients with symptoms of anxiety and depression—A part of U-CARE. Cancer nursing40(5), E9-E16.

    Lewis, F. M., Brandt, P. A., Cochrane, B. B., Griffith, K. A., Grant, M., Haase, J. E., … & Shands, M. E. (2015). The Enhancing Connections Program: A six-state randomized clinical trial of a cancer parenting program. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology83(1), 12.


    Program Planning Theory







    Program Planning Theory