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Managing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Managing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Managing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Up to this point, you have examined multiple stress management techniques. For this assignment, you apply stress management techniques to build on your Final Project. Review T.A. Lang’s Developing Patient Education Handouts resource as well as the “Sampling of Stress Management Techniques” handout. Conduct online research for additional examples of patient information brochures. Then consider the population you selected for your Week 3 Final Project assignment. Select three stressors common to this population. Review the Handout Guidelines and the literature you obtained in your search for stress management techniques and patient information brochures. Consider the information you might include on three different handouts that provide stress management techniques you might use for this population.


The Assignment (3 one-page handouts)

  • Create a different handout for each of the three stress management techniques you might use for the population you selected in Week 3.
  • Apply the Handout Guidelines to the creation of your handouts.



  • Course Text: Baum, A., Trevino, L. A., & Dougall, A. L. (2011). Stress and the cancers. In R. J. Contrada & A. Baum (Eds.), The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health (pp. 420–421). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
    • Read the section titled “Posttraumatic Stress Disorder”
  • Course Text: Dougall, A. L., & Swanson, J. N. (2011). Physical health outcomes of trauma. In R. J. Contrada & A. Baum (Eds.), The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health (pp. 373–384). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
  • Course Text: Gerin, W. (2011). Acute stress responses in the psychophysiological laboratory. In R. J. Contrada & A. Baum (Eds.), The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health (pp. 501–513). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
  • Article: Hourani, L. L., Council, C. L., Hubal, R. C., & Strange, L. B. (2011). Approaches to the primary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder in the military: A review of the stress control literature. Military Medicine, 176(7), 721–730.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the ProQuest Central database.
  • Article: National Center for Biotechnology Information. (2011). Post-traumatic stress disorder. PubMed Health. Retrieved from
  • Article: Scott-Tilley, D., Tilton, A., & Sandel, M. (2010). Biologic correlates to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in female victims of intimate partner violence: Implications for practice. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 46(1), 26–36.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2007). DSM criteria for PTSD. Retrieved from
  • Article: Wilson, D. R. (2010). Health consequences of childhood sexual abuse. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 46(1), 56–64.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Wilson, D. R. (2007). Memory repression in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuseJournal of Community and Health Sciences, 2(2), 72–83.
    Memory Repression in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse, by Dr. Debra Rose Wilson, in Journal of Community and Health Sciences, Vol. 2/Issue 2. Copyright 2007 by Journal of Community and Health Sciences & Debra Wilson. Reprinted by permission of Journal of Community and Health Sciences & Debra Wilson.
  • Handout: Laureate Education, Inc. (2012). Acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Unpublished document.
  • Handout: Laureate Education, Inc. (2012). Sampling of stress management techniques. Unpublished document.
  • Handout: Week 5 Final Project Assignment: Handout Guidelines
  • Workshop Materials: Lang, T. A. (1999). Developing patient education handouts. Davis, CA: Tom Lang Communications.
    Lang, T. (1999). Writing Patient Education Materials. Copyright 1999 by Thomas A. Lang, Principal, Tom Lang Communications and Training International.
  • Web Resource: American Psychological Association. (2012). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Retrieved from
  • Web Resource: National Institute of Mental Health. (2012). Health topics: Post-traumatic stress disorder. Retrieved from

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    Stress Management for Female Domestic Workers

    Steffi Nicholas

    Stress and Coping

    Walden University

    December 13, 2019


    Stress Management for Female Migrant Domestic Workforces from Mexico

    The Target Population

    This exploratory study will focus on assessing the stress dynamics of female migrant domestic workforces from Mexico in the various migration process phases; before migration, while in the United States, as well as they return to Mexico. The target population will include Mexican adult female individuals aged between 18 and 60 years, besides who have finished at least one contract as a domestic worker while in the United States. Managing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Common Stressors and Related Health Issues

    During the various phases of migration; pre-migration, during migration, and post-migration female domestic workforces encounter various stressors that can be pronounced as social, environmental, and internal demands that necessitate the individual to readjust her usual behavioral and as well as cognitive patterns (Rousseau & Frounfelker, 2018). By way of these stressors accruing, the negative consequences probability for their wellbeing increases. These include common migration-related stressors such as sense of loss of country, home, and family, besides socio-economic problems, in addition to challenges of adapting to the United States. Consequently, there are income and financial stressors associated with pre-migration and post-migration phases. In particular, Edwards, Anderson, and Stranges (2019) indicated that during the pre-migration phase the stress emanates from lack of financial resources to support the application process, educational, and occupational status in the nation of origin. Furthermore, there are stressors involved with social support disruption, along with roles and networks, trauma, and political involvement.

    During the post-migration phase the stressors are related to lack of income and money, uncertainty concerning the migration status, under-employment/unemployment, social status loss, loss of community and family social supports (Cook, Alegría, Lin, & Guo, 2009). Additionally concerns about family members left behind and the prospect for reunification, acculturation and adaptation, for instance, change in sex roles.

    During the migration-phase they are different psychosocial issues such as homesickness and loneliness, difficulties in adjusting to the American culture and conditions of workplaces and personal safety, besides abuses and restrictions (Edwards, Anderson, & Stranges, 2019). Apart from being physically hurt, other psychosocial related stresses are connected to worries concerning leaving their children and families, and the relationships with their spouses, on top of the uncertainty regarding the migration outcomes, exposure to violence, in addition to the duration and route of migration.

    Empirical Support for Three Management Strategies

    According to Edwards, Anderson, and Stranges (2019) during the pre-migration phase most of the females use coping strategies that fundamentally involve generating monies by borrowing from their families, friends, acquaintances, and even sale of their own properties. Additionally, they apply problem-oriented coping strategies that involve mobilization of relatives to support them in the preparations for their departure. Following Rousseau and Frounfelker (2018) during the migration phase most females use emotion-focused strategies that include spiritual strategies like reading spiritual books, praying, crying, becoming more dominant, enduring the situation, and resting. Edwards, Anderson, and Stranges (2019) indicate that the social support forms include creating groups whereby they share their problems and look for ways to solve them. Moreover, a considerable number of females cope with stress through having frequent talks with their children, spouses, relatives, and friends.

    Reasons why these Strategies are Appropriate

    The transformation from problem-centered stress management strategies to a more-passive, in addition to emotion-centered way of managing the stress could be reasoned out by the nonexistence of control, occasioning from these migrant female’s isolated positions as well as reliance on their employers (Cook, Alegría, Lin, & Guo, 2009). Numerous scholars indicate that problem-centered stress management strategies are more applicable whenever situational demands are observed as controllable. On the other hand, Rousseau and Frounfelker (2018) emphasize that emotion-focused stress management strategies are more applicable whenever demands seem uncontrollable. Then again, the variety and flexibility of the appropriate stress management strategies are more significant to the levels of stress than the particular management strategy. Therefore, it is plausible that the live-in nature of the female migrant domestic work, in the company of the working hours, unfortunate working conditions, and employers’ restrictions, have a high inclination of reducing and determining their options for management strategies and thereby their choice of stress management flexibility.

    Social structures appear to be a significant part and parcel in the lives of these female migrant domestic workforces in different ways. Being away from their family as well as the responsibility of generating the household income seems to be an important tool towards dealing with the stresses they encounter. As reported in various studies, the creations of social networks have a significant impact on the wellbeing of these migrants (Rousseau & Frounfelker (2018). Moreover, participation in religious activities has been commonly used by these migrants during stress and particularly by society’s most disadvantaged groups, as they aim at emotional adjustment to the stressful situation (Edwards, Anderson, & Stranges, 2019). Additionally, they are focused at the relegation of responsibilities to a higher entity, instead of at actions towards changing the stressors, in addition to supporting them to maintain their cultural identity. Managing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder





    Cook, B., Alegría, M., Lin, J. Y., & Guo, J. (2009). Pathways and correlates connecting Latinos’ mental health with exposure to the United States. American journal of public health99(12), 2247-2254.

    Edwards, J., Anderson, K. K., & Stranges, S. (2019). Migrant mental health, Hickam’s dictum, and the dangers of oversimplification.

    Kirmayer, L. J., Narasiah, L., Munoz, M., & et al. (2011). Common mental health problems in immigrants and refugees: general approach in primary care. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l’Association medicale canadienne183(12), E959–E967. doi:10.1503/cmaj.090292

    Rousseau, C., & Frounfelker, R. L. (2018). Mental health needs and services for migrants: an overview for primary care providers. Journal of travel medicine26(2), tay150.

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